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Презентация на тему: Определение биомаркеров


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Презентация на тему: Определение биомаркеров


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№ слайда 6 DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or bioc
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DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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№ слайда 9 Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known
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Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters or oligos). These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA (also called anti-sense RNA) sample (called target) under high-stringency conditions. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected and quantified by detection of fluorophore-, silver-, or chemiluminescence-labeled targets to determine relative abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target. Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters or oligos). These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA (also called anti-sense RNA) sample (called target) under high-stringency conditions. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected and quantified by detection of fluorophore-, silver-, or chemiluminescence-labeled targets to determine relative abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target.

№ слайда 10 Microarray technology evolved from Southern blotting Microarray technology evolv
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Microarray technology evolved from Southern blotting Microarray technology evolved from Southern blotting

№ слайда 11 In standard microarrays, the probes are synthesized and then attached via surfac
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In standard microarrays, the probes are synthesized and then attached via surface engineering to a solid surface by a covalent bond to a chemical matrix (via epoxy-silane, amino-silane, lysine, polyacrylamide or others). The solid surface can be glass or a silicon chip, in which case they are colloquially known as an Affy chip when an Affymetrix chip is used. Other microarray platforms, such as Illumina, use microscopic beads, instead of the large solid support. Alternatively, microarrays can be constructed by the direct synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on solid surfaces. DNA arrays are different from other types of microarray only in that they either measure DNA or use DNA as part of its detection system. In standard microarrays, the probes are synthesized and then attached via surface engineering to a solid surface by a covalent bond to a chemical matrix (via epoxy-silane, amino-silane, lysine, polyacrylamide or others). The solid surface can be glass or a silicon chip, in which case they are colloquially known as an Affy chip when an Affymetrix chip is used. Other microarray platforms, such as Illumina, use microscopic beads, instead of the large solid support. Alternatively, microarrays can be constructed by the direct synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on solid surfaces. DNA arrays are different from other types of microarray only in that they either measure DNA or use DNA as part of its detection system. The traditional solid-phase array is a collection of orderly microscopic "spots", called features, each with thousands of identical and specific probes attached to a solid surface, such as glass, plastic or silicon biochip (commonly known as a genome chip, DNA chip or gene array). Thousands of these features can be placed in known locations on a single DNA microarray. The alternative bead array is a collection of microscopic polystyrene beads, each with a specific probe and a ratio of two or more dyes, which do not interfere with the fluorescent dyes used on the target sequence.

№ слайда 12 Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers
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Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously (tens of thousands of probes) or to genotype multiple regions of a genome (many genetic tests in parallel). Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously (tens of thousands of probes) or to genotype multiple regions of a genome (many genetic tests in parallel).

№ слайда 13 Gene expression profiling Gene expression profiling Comparative genomic hybridiz
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Gene expression profiling Gene expression profiling Comparative genomic hybridization GeneID Chromatin immunoprecipitation on Chip DamID SNP detection Alternative splicing detection Fusion genes microarray Tiling array

№ слайда 14 the data, which came from 26 cancer studies published in prominent journals and
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the data, which came from 26 cancer studies published in prominent journals and includes a total of 14,000 genes and 22 types of tumors. the data, which came from 26 cancer studies published in prominent journals and includes a total of 14,000 genes and 22 types of tumors.

№ слайда 15 Using a new online cancer database, scientists have sifted through genetic infor
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Using a new online cancer database, scientists have sifted through genetic information about some 3,000 tumors and identified a group of genes that are altered in most if not all cancers. Using a new online cancer database, scientists have sifted through genetic information about some 3,000 tumors and identified a group of genes that are altered in most if not all cancers. The 67 genes are either more or less active in cancer cells than they are in healthy cells. For scientists, the genes are a resource for developing diagnostic tests and therapies that target these genes. In addition, the researchers identified 69 genes that are altered in aggressive cancers, including some genes from the original group.

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№ слайда 32 Ранняя диагностика заболеваний Ранняя диагностика заболеваний Злокачественные но
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Ранняя диагностика заболеваний Ранняя диагностика заболеваний Злокачественные новообразования Инфекционные Аутоиммунные Аллергия (anti-IgE) Эффективность терапии/вакцин Прогноз отторжения трансплантата Определение опухолевых антигенов Определение эпитопов Белок-белковые взаимодействия Патологии беременности Определение пола плода на ранних стадиях Диагностика резус конфликта Допинг тестирование

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