Affirmative I/You have visitedHe/She/It has visitedWe/You/They have visited
Negative Long FormI/You have not visitedHe/She/It has not visitedWe/You/They have not visitedShort FormI/You haven’t visitedHe/She/It hasn’t visitedWe/You/They haven’t visited
Interrogative Have I/you visited?Has he/she/it visited?Have we/you/they visited?
Short answer Yes, I/you have. No, I/You haven’t.Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn’t.Yes, we/you/they have. No, we/you/they haven’t.
We form the present perfect with the auxiliary verb have/has and past participle of the main verb.
We usually form the past participle of regular verbs by adding –ed to the verb. Stay-stayed
We form questions by putting have/has before the subject. f.E.Has she done her homework?
We form negations by putting not between have/has and the past participle. f.E. They haven’t phoned yet.
Use We use the present perfect:for action which started in the past and continue up to the present.He has worked in this company for five years.(= He started working in the company five years ago and he still works there.)
to talk about a past action which has a visible result in the present.He has sprained his ankle. He can’t walk.
for actions which happened at an unstated time in the past. The action is more important than the time.He has been in Spain twice. ( When? We don’t know. Time is not stated.)
with today, this morning/afternoon, etc when these periods of time are not finished at the time of speaking. She has typed five letters this afternoon. (It is still afternoon.)to refer to an experience. Have you ever been to Italy?
Time expressions used with the present perfect: just, already, yet, for, since, ever, never, etc.