There are countable and uncountable nouns. Countablea chaira questionan engineera bus Uncountablematermilkfreedomfriendship
The countable noun is used in the form of the singular and the plural.The uncountable nouns is used only in the form of singular.
Some nouns form the plural by changing the root vowel.
The plural of the nouns sheep, deer, swine and fish is identical with the singular.
Some nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek keep the plural form of the language from which they have been borrowed.A phenomenon [finominen]-phenomena [finimine]явищеa crisis [ kraisis ]-crises[kraisiz]a radius [reidjes]-radii [reidiai]
If the singular ends in – th [θ] preceded by a long vowel or a diphthong, in the plural the final [θ] is changed into [ ʆ] after which the ending –s is pronounced [z].A path [pa:θ]- paths [pa:ʆz]
Some nouns ending in – otake –es.f.e Tomato- tomatoesBut:radio-radios, piano- pianos,photo- photos, video- videos.
Repeat the rule!
Plurals Spelling RulesTo form plural nouns we usually add -s to the noun. one pen - two pens Nouns ending in -s, -ss, -ch, -x or -o take -es in the plural. bus - buses, glass - glasses, brush - brushes, watch - watches, fox - foxes, tomato - tomatoes However, some nouns ending in - o take only –s . radio - radios, piano - pianos, studio - studios , video - videos kilo - kilos Nouns ending in a vowel + y take -s in the plural. boy - boys Nouns ending in a consonant + y drop the -y and take -ies in the plural. party - parties , baby - babies Most nouns ending in -f or -fe, drop the -f or -fe and take -ves in the plural. knife - knives , wolf - wolves However, some nouns ending in -f or -fe take only -s. roof - roofs, cliff - cliffs, giraffe - giraffes
Irregular PluralsSome nouns do not form their plural according to the about rules.They either have a different form or the same form as in the singular. These are:
Countable / Uncountable NounsCountable nouns are nouns which we can count. They have singular and plural forms. One egg, two eggs, three eggs
Uncountable nouns are nouns which we cannot count. Uncountable nouns have onlysingular forms. These nouns include:Food: cheese, butter, salt, pepper, bread, spaghetti, etcLiquid: coffee, milk, water, tea, lemonade, etc
We can use the following nouns before uncountable nouns to show quantity:
a bottle → a bottle of cokea glass → a glass of watera carton → a carton of milka cup → a cup of coffeea bowl → a bowl of rice a packet → a packet of spaghettia slice → a slice of cheese a loaf → a loaf of breada kilo → a kilo of sugara bar → a bar of chocolate