DIFFERENTIATEDNOUNS Made by: Bokach Olga, REPH-31Checked by: Kakzhanova F.A.Karaganda 2010
Differentiated nouns are nouns where ending -s (in plural number) changes the semantic meaning of a word.
On the surface of semantic relations, the meaning of the singular will be understood as simply "one", as opposed to the meaning of the plural as "many" in the sense of "more than one".This is apparently obvious for such correlations as book — books, lake — lakes and the like.
However, alongside of these semantically unequivocal correlations, there exist plurals and singulars that cannot be fully accounted for by the above ready-made approach.
This becomes clear when we take for comparison such forms as potato (one item of the vegetables) and potatoes (food), paper (material) and papers (notes or documents), sky (the vault of heaven) and skies (the same sky taken as a direct or figurative background), etc.
As a result of the comparison we conclude that the broader sememic mark of the plural, or "plurality" in the grammatical sense, should be described as the potentially dismembering reflection of the structure of the referent, while the sememic mark of the singular will be understood as the non-dismembering reflection of the structure of the referent, i.e. the presentation of the referent in its indivisible entireness.
On the other hand, there are semantic varieties of the plural forms that differ from one another in their plural quality as such. The extreme point of this semantic scale is marked by the lexicalisation of the plural form, i.e. by its serving as a means of rendering not specificational, but purely notional difference in meaning.Cf. colours as a "flag", attentions as "wooing", pains as "effort", quarters as "abode", etc.
Ilyish says that “the difference between the two numbers may increase to such a degree that the plural form develops a completely new meaning which the singular has not got at all. Thus, for example, the plural form colours has the meaning 'banner' which is restricted to the plural (e. g. to serve under the colours of liberty). In a similar manner, the plural attentions has acquired the meaning 'wooing' (pay attentions to a young lady). Since, in these cases, a difference in lexical meaning develops between the plural and the singular, it is natural to say that the plural form has been lexicalised.What is essential from the grammatical viewpoint is the very fact that a difference in meaning which is purely grammatical in its origins is apt under certain conditions to be overshadowed by a lexical difference.”
Some examples of differentiated nouns
Addressобращение; речь; официальное выступлениеAddresses(уст.) ухаживание
Board доскаBoardsподмостки, сцена; сценическая профессия
Bone кость (часть скелета позвоночных)Bonesскелет; костяк; человек; телоостанки, мощи
Element хим. элементэлемент, составная частьElementsосновы, азы непогода (ветер, дождь)
Fundamental основное правило; принципFundamentalsосновы
Gut кишка; (разг.) брюхоGuts(разг.) внутреннее cодержание(разг.) мужество, характер, сила воли
HeadголоваHeadsрудалицевая сторона монеты (с изображением головы), орёл
Heartсердце, душаHeartsчерви (масть)
illвред, злоillsнеприятности, проблемы
iron железоironsкандалы, оковы
Kennel собачья конурасвора собак Kennelsпсарня; собачий питомник
Land земля, сушапочвастрана; государствоLandsпоместья
Legalityзаконность; легальностьследование законуLegalitiesобязательства, налагаемые законом
Letter букваписьмоLetters литература
Liberty свободаLiberties(юр.) вольности, привилегии
Light свет; освещениеLightsмнение, оценка; система принципов
Lineлиния, черта, штрихстрокаконтурэкваторLinesплан, чертежстрой (солдат)стихи, поэзия
Mannerманера, поведениеMannersвоспитанность, умение себя вести
Occasionслучай, событиеOccasions(уст.) дела
Pointточка, пунктвопросPointsдостоинства, преимуществапуанты
Correspondencia to predicateBoth singular and plural They looked at me like I was nuts.The bizarre rantings in the notes left behind by the serial killer convinced the police that these guys were nuts.