To examine how financial markets such as bond, stock and foreign exchange markets work To examine how financial markets such as bond, stock and foreign exchange markets work To examine how financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies work To examine the role of money in the economy
What is money? What is money? Who controls the money supply? Why is money important? Why is inflation a problem? How do banks make “money” (profits)? Why are banks important? How does the government regulate banks and why? Financial Markets and financial instruments What is monetary policy? How does the Fed conduct monetary policy? How are interest rates determined?
Money is the stock of items widely used to make payment for goods and services. Money, or the money supply, includes: currency and coins in circulation, checking accounts in depository institutions, and other items, such as Certificates of Deposit (CDs), when measured more broadly.
The central bank is responsible for the trend or long-run behavior of the money supply. Banks and non-bank public also play important roles in determining the aggregate money supply. In the United States, the central bank is the Federal Reserve System (the Fed). The Fed conducts monetary policy. Monetary Policy refers to the management of money supply and interest rates.
When the money supply increases more rapidly than the output of goods and services, inflation occurs. When the money supply increases more rapidly than the output of goods and services, inflation occurs. Why is Inflation a problem? Deflation is a continuing decline in prices and is more damaging to a nation's economic health than inflation. Why is deflation a problem? Inflation targeting occurs when a central bank announces an explicit inflation range it pledges to maintain and enforces policies consistent with that goal.
Evidence suggests that money plays an important role in generating business cycles Evidence suggests that money plays an important role in generating business cycles Recessions (unemployment) and booms (inflation) affect all of us Monetary Theory ties changes in the money supply to changes in aggregate economic activity and the price level
The stock market The bond market The foreign exchange (ForEx) market
A security (financial instrument) is a claim on the issuer’s future income or assets A security (financial instrument) is a claim on the issuer’s future income or assets A bond is a debt security that promises to make payments periodically for a specified period of time Bondholders are lenders; stockholders are owners. An interest rate (or yield) is the cost of borrowing or the price paid for the rental of funds and are determined by market forces of supply and demand.
There are many different interest rates. Interest rates tend to move together. Sometimes we ignore the differences among interest rates and focus on the interest rate level. The interest rate level is determined in the bond market or loanable funds market. There are intimate relationships among different interest rates.
Common stock represents a share of ownership in a corporation Common stock represents a share of ownership in a corporation A share of stock is a claim on the earnings and assets of the corporation A company’s stock share price reflects the opinion of the market about the company's economic value, which ultimately depends on its future profitability. Major indexes reflect changing sentiment about the nation's economic prospects. Dow-Jones Industrials Average (DJIA) Standard and Poor's 500 Average (S&P 500)
The foreign exchange market is where funds are converted from one currency into another The foreign exchange market is where funds are converted from one currency into another The foreign exchange rate is the price of one currency in terms of another currency The foreign exchange market determines the foreign exchange rate
Appreciation is an increase in the value of one nation’s currency relative to another nation’s currency. Appreciation is an increase in the value of one nation’s currency relative to another nation’s currency. Depreciation is the opposite. Appreciation causes: higher prices to foreign buyers of exports, lower prices to domestic consumers of imports, and a trade deficit (or a reduction in the trade surplus). Depreciation causes: lower prices to foreign buyers of exports, higher prices to domestic consumers of imports, and a trade surplus (or a reduction in the trade deficit.)
Financial Intermediaries—institutions that borrow funds from people who have saved and make loans to other people Financial Intermediaries—institutions that borrow funds from people who have saved and make loans to other people Banks—institutions that accept deposits and make loans Other Financial Institutions—insurance companies, finance companies, pension funds, mutual funds and investment banks Financial Innovation—in particular, the advent of the information age and e-finance
Interest rates are the price of money Interest rates are the price of money Prior to 1980, the rate of money growth and the interest rate on long-term Treasure bonds were closely tied Since then, the relationship is less clear but still an important determinant of interest rates
Monetary policy is the management of the money supply and interest rates Monetary policy is the management of the money supply and interest rates Conducted in the U.S. by the Federal Reserve Bank (Fed) Fiscal policy is government spending and taxation Budget deficit is the excess of expenditures over revenues for a particular year Budget surplus is the excess of revenues over expenditures for a particular year Any deficit must be financed by borrowing