ЮВАО Марьино ГОУ гимназия №1562 им. А.Боровика Проектная работа по английскому языку«Атлантида и её влияние на развитие цивилизации Майя» Проектная работаученицы 11 «А» классагимназии №1562 Манташевой Джамили Научный руководитель: Гиленко Людмила Николаевна (учитель английского языка)
Table of contents INTRODUCTION--- - - 31. ATLANTIS of PLATON---- - 42. ATLANTIS IN BLACK SEA--- - - 53. ATLANTIS IN MEDITERRANEAN SEA-- - - 7 Riddle of eels - - - - - - 94. ATLANTIS IN NEW LIGHT--- - - 115. SIMILARITY OF CULTURES ON BOTH SIDES OF OCEAN - - 126. CIVILIZATION OF MAYA--- - - 147. CONCLUSIONS OF TUR HEIERDALA-- - - 168. THE MODERN LOOK ON AT ATLANTIS- - - 18 P.S. - - - - - - - 219. THE CONCLUSION--- - - 2310.LIST OF USED LITERATURE - - - - 2511. APPENDIX - - - - 26 12.SOCIOLOGYCAL QUESTIONING - - - - 39
Introduction In the given job I undertake attempt to establish the location of Atlantis, to show value of this most ancient civilisation on an example of tribes of Maya.
Atlantis of Platon For the first time about Atlantis it became known from Platon's publication (427-347 BC) «Timey» and "Kritiy». According to his story, Atlantis is the continent,once settling down behind" Herculean columns "(Gibraltar), as a result of the strongest earthquakes (tsunami) appeared under water. Therefore for Atlantis always searched beyond strait of Gibraltar, around the Azores. It was searched in area of The Canary Plateau, believing, that islands of The Canary Archipelago are tops of mountains of the sunk Atlantis .
Atlantis in Black sea Appoloney Rodossky [III century BC] describing an ancient heroic plot in «Argonautics»and the occurred accident of Atlantis adhere its site to area of ancient Black sea. The break of Dardanelless called by earthquake of monstrous force, has led to creation of sea of Marmara which till this moment was the lake, incorporated by the river (on a place of the future passage Bosporus) with Black sea. Consequences of this accident were grandiose. The water level in Black sea in short term has risen more than on 100 metres. The huge areas of Black Sea Coasts have been flooded . The coastal line at low east edge of the sea was removed almost on 200 kilometres. Geophysical acknowledgement of this accident has been found by scientists A.D.Arkhangelsk and N.M.Strahov. Researches of sedimentary breeds of a bottom of the Black and Marble seas have shown, that to depth of 100 metres did not occur sedimentation earlier II - V millenia To D.C. In Paleolithic and neolithic epochs as at that time these areas were a land.
Atlantis in Mediterranean sea Atlantis was in the east Mediterranean; it is Crete and surrounding islands during times of Blossoming of a dynasty of tsar Minos. K. Т. Frost In 1897 Russian mineralogist A. Н. The Karnorzhitsky publishes in " Scientific review" article "Atlantis" in which places Atlantis "among Asia Minor, Syria, Libya and Hellas... And besides near to the main western mouth of Nile (Heracle Pillars)". After all both city Sais, whence the legend about atlases has come, and a city Heracleya, based by Heracle laid absolutely nearby. In three years after article publication of Karnorzhitsky Arthur Evans, the outstanding English archeologist, has found out traces of an ancient civilisation on island Crete. In March, 1900 it has begun excavation of city Knoss, Ancient capital of Crete, also has opened a legendary Labyrinth of tsar Minos.
Riddle of eels Still Aristotle has paid attention that in waters of Mediterranean sea it is possible to meet eels only a female. About an origin of eels, "fishes without fathers", there was a set of theories. In the end of XIX century was considered, that eels are born live, and bring them into the world females of one of kinds of fishes. Only in 1904 the Danish ichthyologist I.Schmidt has solved a riddle of eels. Eels hatch from caviar in Sargasso sea. On the second year of a life they go to swimming to coast of Europe. There females rise upstream the rivers, spend in the rivers about two years, come back in the sea and float to Sargasso sea. There they passes the marriage period and females postpone caviar. It is easily possible to explain such behaviour of eels if to assume, that thousand years ago on a sea Sargassova place there were coast of Atlantis where they passed their childhood. The warm current of Gulf Stream bore them to coast of Europe, and then the counter-current flow returned them back.
Atlantis in New Light The known selector of treasures Mel Fisher on the basis of space pictures assumed, that it is necessary to search a site of Atlantis at coast of the South America. The group of the American experts has carried out the analysis of columns of the ground soil lifted from a bottom of Gulf of Mexico near of a mouth of the river Mississipi. The basic conclusion drawn by them consists that about 12 thousand years ago ice cover in planet Northern hemisphere has far promoted to the south. Then so rough thawing has begun, that sea level lifting could make some tens metres a year. Before thawing of glaciers described by the American scientists has begun, the sea level was much lower, than today. Therefore isolation and flooding of the whole ancient civilisations basically were quite possible. The maximum of lifting of a water level, according to the spent calculations, is necessary somewhere for 9600 year B.C., that precisely enough coincides with date of flooding of Atlantis named by Platon. Though existing methods of paleoanaliz do not guarantee high accuracy of results, but the fact remains the fact...
Location of the Mexican bay (selected territory- territory of Mexico)
SIMILARITY OF CULTURES ON BOTH SIDES OF OCEAN Atlantologists pay attention that in Egypt and Mexico pyramids are built, stonetombs-chest are produced, died are mummified, the similar hieroglyphic letter is used, in Egypt and Mexico there is an isolated caste of priests, the Sun cult, similar system of calculation of time and developed enough astronomy. Some atlantologists consider that Aztecs, Inks, Maya and Egyptians were pupils of Atlases, which have arrived (or have come) to them after accident.
Civilisation of Maya Маya is group of the American Indian tribes which have created ancient developed culture in Average America. Now from this group have escaped, and that is only partially, three tribes: actually maya, itza and lacandons, occupying a part of Mexico (states Chiapas, Tabasco, Kampeche and Yucatan), northern part of Guatemala and Honduras. Number of modern маya in territory of Mexico — about 280 thousand persons. Indians маya – one of the most mysterious tribes of both Americas. The data found out by scientists testify that Indians маya have developed special, very detailed form of measurement of time and as difficult enough alphabet on the basis of hieroglyphs. Exact date of occurrence of maya remains in doubt, clearly only, that for 1000 BC here already there were tribe settlements. Today маya are known for the pyramidal temples and the tombs which by miracle have saved after occurrence on continent of Spaniards, mercilessly burning everything, that was treated as «pagan idols» and belonged to «a pagan cult». It is known, that the society maya had accurate social structure and power division. Records of the first colonists and the rests of hieroglyphic annals of маya tell about how administration in settlements and also about gains of the neighbour tribes were exercised. People of this tribe were also perfect farmers who have developed agricultural systems and technologies, for a long time advancing the time. The applied art of maya also reflects their high development and it is considered the most advanced in comparison with other people of epoch. But, perhaps, most mysterious of all history of maya is that nobody still has taken out more or less proved assumption of that, whence takes sources this civilisation.
Territory which was occupied by civilization of mayya. The red is select of the border of culture of maya, to black is territory of Mesoamerikan civilization .
Conclusions of Tur Hejerdal Norwegian scientific Tur Hejerdal has revealed set of signs of similarity of cultures of Egypt and Mexico:Both on that and on this side of ocean there is known the hierarchy based on worship to the Sun. The dynasty of the governor names the Sun his ancestor. 2. Marriages between brothers and sisters in a ruling dynasty for preservation of cleanliness of "solar" blood. 3. Manufacturing of books with hieroglyphic texts in the form of long wide tapes which developed or curtailed into rolls. 4. Constructions of the enormous buildings deprived of practical functions. Creation of pyramids and megalithic constructions. 5. Megalithic sarcophaguses with a massive stone cover. 6. Mummification with application of pitches, bandage, cotton stuffing. Masks. 7. An unprofitable beard as a part of a ritual attire of the Supreme priests. 8. Technology of manufacturing of gum-state brick. 9. Irrigating systems, plumbing and sanitary in cities. 10. A spindle with identical under the form of spindle whorl . The Same type of a weaving loom. 11. Similarity of clothes. Man's raincoats, a dress with a belt and fasteners on a shoulder for women. Rope and leather sandals, a headdress from feathers which was carried by soldiers and high-ranking officials.
Conclusions of Tur Hejerdal 12. Identical springal;. 13. Similar musical instruments, for example drums and flutes. Similar tools of work and a craft. 14. Far expeditions behind molluscs-sources of highly appreciated red paint. 15. Bronze about one structure. Bronze mirrors, nippers and decorative hand bells. 16. Gold filigree products. 17. The similar ceramics, in particular a traditional three-legged vase. 18. The terracotta press, flat and cylindrical. 19. Images of the person with the bird's head. 20. Images of the person with the cat's head. 21. Honouring cat's-jaguar, a leopard. 22. Custom to frame boards of courts with a continuous number of round fighting boards. On frescos of Maya vessels with fair-haired soldiers are represented. 23. The image of a human head with put out tongue. Similar lines in culture and a life of nations and even the general laws of development of civilisations on that and this sides of ocean are explained by that once there was Platon's island – Atlantis in Atlantic ocean. After all if Atlantis - a cradle of civilisations much in history of Old and New Light finds a natural explanation..
Modern sight at Atlantis Interesting results of researches by the Soviet scientific courts of underwater mountain of Amperes (near to strait of Gibraltar) deserve steadfast attention. In the mid-seventies and the beginning of 80th years from research ships photographing of this mountain has been spent. The analysis of the received pictures has allowed to draw a conclusion that the rectangular structures represented on them divided into blocks by equal seams, can testify to their artificial origin. The calculations executed with formulas by Soviet geophysics Sorohtin, have shown, that Ampere-mountain could tower over a water table not further than 40 thousand years ago. By the way, nearby there is one more mountain Atlantis with flat top and other signs of surface existence. It was studied by the American scientists and have come to conclusion, that even 12 thousands years ago this mountain was volcanic island. In the mid-eighties expedition of the Soviet scientists on a vessel "Academician Boris Petrov" has lifted from depth approximately 500 metres around mountain of Amperes the marble splinter which origin it is difficult to explain. By results of the analysis it has been established, that a marble plate during far times being a part of a land construction, it has appeared on an ocean floor much thousand years ago when sails of the ships of our civilisation yet were not inflated with winds.
Site of the Gibraltar channel, being between Sonth extremity of the Pyrenean peninsula and north-western coast of Africa (picture from space)
P.S. At island Northern Bimini on depth of several metres stone walls about ten years ago were found out. The construction has length 70, and width - 10 metres. It consists of the massive blocks laid by equal numbers. It is considered, that it is the rests of former port constructions. Definition by a radio carbon method of age of the blocks which are on depth of 10 metres, shows, that this stone about 10 thousand years... The ancient history stores many not opened secrets. For example, the surprising fact: before in Ancient Egypt has arisen drawing hieroglyphic letter in III millenium To AD, there already there was more perfect italic continuous letter. Today nobody can decipher signs of this mysterious letter. But from here follows the conclusion ,that writing has been invented prior to the beginning of the Egyptian history! Perhaps, these mysterious copyists were Atlases? As we see, appearing new data allow to draw quite certain conclusions in a question of a reality of existence of Atlantis.
Site of island of North Bimini, one of districts of the Bahamian islands
The conclusion On island in Atlantic ocean there is no time there was a developed civilisation. Inhabitants of this country have learnt the ancient Egyptians and маya to time measurement, building of pyramids and many other things. Atlases have set of in the Egyptian pyramids the most different numbers, as if addressing this message to descendants. But 11500 years ago the meteorite has fallen to the Earth (or a comet), called destruction of Atlantis. How much was Atlantises? The answer, I think, will not call the big objections: there was the one and only one Atlantis about which we have learnt from Platon and which is "foremother" of all ancient and our today civilisation. All new and new facts, certificates, proofs convince us of it.
List of the literature used 1.[Platon]. Compositions of/[Per]. [Karpova]. - St. Petersburg, 1873 - 1879. - T. VI. H. 1-6.) 2. Sergey Klimenko “history of ancient races and peoples”. 3. Kuzmishchev v. “The secret of priests [Mayya]” \ \ Moscow, 1975 4. Gulyayev [V].[I]. “All secrets of peace” \ \ Moscow, 2003 5. Gulyayev V. I., “the earliest civilizations Of [mezoameriki]. ”, M: Science, 1972. 6. Keram K., “gods, tomb, scientists”, M: Republic, 1994. 7. Fats [N].[F]. “Atlantis. Basic problems of [atlantologii]”. 8.I. Donelli " Atlantida. Dopotopnyymir. “
Places in Atlantic Ocean, where different researchers placed Atlantis
Plato, retelling Egyptian legend about Atlantis, in detail described the capital of the island absorbed by ocean. Following its text, contemporary artist reproduced the panorama of mysterious city.
Plan of the capital of Atlantis Fantastic landscapes of Atlantis according to the descriptions of Plato
Reconstructions of the palace of Poseidon in Atlantis according to the descriptions of Plato god Poseidon, who, costing on the chariot, manage by six winged horses. According to the compositions of Plato, in the temple of Atlantis, dedicated to one god Poseidon, there was this statue from gold.
Sociological questioning. I have made sociological questioning in 8 10 «А» forms .There were such questions as:1.Do you trust in existence of Atlantis?2.Do you trust that Atlantis was a cradle of all another civilizations?3.Do you think that Atlantis was more developed than another civilizations?4.How can you explain so much likenesses in cultures of tribes of Maya and Egypt? There are the results of this questioning as diagrams: