“A History of the United States through its flags”. Levin Egor, Moscow, School 1693Rykova Anastasya, Moscow, School 1693Moscow, 2011
The project aim: To investigate various information on theories about the origin of the flag’s symbols – the stars and stripes and separate out the myths from the facts behind the Stars and Stripes.
A project hypothesis. Studying materials on the given question we can offer different opinions about the American flag’s origin and about tight connection between the history of the country and the history of its flag .
Project problems. to develop capabilities and skills of intellectual and aesthetic communication;to broaden intellectual horizon and vocabulary;to analyze existing versions and work out our own version on the given question;to form skills of research work and work with scientific literature;to create the methodical learner’s guide on regional history of the United States of America for secondary and senior school.
Methods sociological research and interrogation among school students; systematization of the methodological, artistic, popular and scientific literature, Internet sites; translation of articles and other materials into English language.
Result creation of the methodical learner’s guide on country specific studies of The United States of America for secondary and senior school.studying the history of The United States of America through the origin of the flag’s symbols – the stars and stripes.
A symbol Flags are visual symbols, and few of them are as universally recognized as the American flag
American Symbols before the Stars and Stripes. Since there was no official United States Flag for the first year after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, there were a great number of homespun flag designs. The first flag is without question the most well known of those. The First United States Flag “Betsy Ross” Cowpens Flag Bennington Flag
The Union flag Although the British flag underwent a number of changes in the 17th century, the St. George's Cross continued as the official national flag. The Union flag would have been the official flag of what would one day become Georgia.A new flag for England and her colonies was adopted in 1707. This flag was widely used on ships during the Colonial period. This was the first National flag of the United States.
American Revolution Flags Before June 1776 John Paul Jones raised this Flag on the British frigate Serapis, which he had captured during the most famous Revolutionary naval battle on September 23rd, 1779, when his own ship, the badly damaged Bonhomme Richard, sank. This was the first national flag of the English colonies, and Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown under this flag.
The Gadsden Flag In 1775, Colonel Christopher Gadsden was in Philadelphia representing his home colony of South Carolina at the Continental Congress and presented this new naval flag to the Congress. It became the first flag used by the sea-going soldiers who eventually would become the United States Marines.
British East India Company Flags 1678-1800 Of course, if you really want to know who caused the American Revolution, the answer is the British East India Company, originally, called the English East India Company, but renamed in 1707.
Join or Die Flag The rattlesnake was the favorite animal emblem of the Americans even before the Revolution. In 1751 Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette carried a bitter article protesting the British practice of sending convicts to America.
Powerful American symbol Navy Regulations, first promulgated in 1865, prescribed the use of the jack. Additionally it is flown to indicate a court martial is in progress, and as the President's and Secretary of the Navy's personal flag.This powerful American symbol was used by the Continental Navy in 1775 and is being used again by the U.S. Navy in the War on Terrorism.
Grand Union Flag 1775 The Grand Union 1775: Also known as the Continental flag, it is the first true U.S. Flag. It combined the British King's Colours and the thirteen stripes signifying Colonial unity. George Washington liked this design so well that he chose it to be flown to celebrate the formation of the Continental Army on New Years Day, 1776, on Prospect Hill in Somerville, near his headquarters at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The standard Cavalry Guidon The U.S. Cavalry used Guidons in the Civil War as well as the Plains Indian Wars later on. This was also one of the three flags of Colonel George A. Custer and the Seventh Cavalry at the Battle of Little Big Horn, as this was the standard Cavalry Guidon of that era, 1876.
Colonial "Liberty" Protest Flags Flags with the word "Liberty" on them came to be called Liberty Flags and were usually flown from Liberty poles.
The New England Flag and Ensign The history of the Pine Tree as a symbol of New England predates the European colonial settlements. In eastern Massachusetts, southern New Hampshire and the southern corner of Maine, there lived a nomadic tribe of Native Americans known as the Penacook.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony Flag 1636-1686 The Massachusetts Bay Colony used the British Red Ensign for public ceremonies. In 1636, Roger Williams preached a sermon condemning the "unchristian" shaped cross in the flag as a symbol of the Anti-Christ. Governor John Endicott ordered removal of the St. George's Cross from their flags.
The Sons of Liberty Flags 1765 The Sons of Liberty Flags 1765 The history of the Stamp Act flag began in about 1765, when protests of the duties and taxes and stamps required by Parliament began in the colonies.
The "Grand Old Union Flag" or Continental Colors 1775 According to legend, one day in 1775 General Washington approached Rebecca Flower Young, a Philadelphia pennant and colors maker, and asked her to make a flag for use by the troops. The flag he designed became known as the Grand Union Flag. Years later, Rebecca assisted her daughter in making an even more famous flag for our country, the "Star Spangled Banner" used at Ft. McHenry.
American Revolutionary War Privateer and Naval Ensigns A privateer is a privately-owned warship authorized by "letters of marque" from a recognized national government to attack foreign shipping. The 13 Colonies, having declared their Independence, had only 31 ships comprising the Continental Navy. To add to this, local state governments issued Letters of Marque to privately owned merchant ships which were then armed as warships to prey on British merchant ships.
The First Flag Resolution 1777 The Betsy Ross Flag According to mistaken legend, in June of 1776, Betsy Ross, who was a widow struggling to run her own upholstery business sewed the first flag. Upholsterers in Colonial America not only worked on furniture but did all manner of sewing work, which for some included making flags.
George Washington's Headquarters Flag One of the reasons we discount the whole Betsy Ross story as a myth is because we know George Washington didn't favor five-pointed stars. Take a look at the personal flag that George Washington had made in 1775 and notice that he used six pointed stars! He never stopped using this flag throughout the whole the Revolutionary War.
The Hopkinson Flag The design of the first Official "Stars and Stripes" is credited to Francis Hopkinson, a Congressman from New Jersey, and signer of the Declaration of Independence. His design had the thirteen stars arranged in a "staggered" pattern. Although there is no original example of this flag still left, we do have the bill he gave Congress for its design. Congressman Hopkins asked Congress for a keg of ale for his work. There is no record of Congress ever paying him.
United States Flags 1783-1820Including the War of 1812 The Fort Independence Flag 1781 Jonathon Fowle presented this flag to the officers of "Castle William " (later renamed Fort Independence) in Boston in 1781. The first foreign war ship to visit the new United States after the war was H.M.S. Alligator in 1791. She saluted the American flag with 13 guns and the fort returned the salute. The flag is now part of the Massachusetts State House collection.
The Great Star flag. There are many, many versions of the Great Star flag. This flag flew over the Capitol dome for at least six months of 1818. This flag was designed by Captain Samuel Chester Reid of the U.S. Navy. Congress adopted both his 13 stripes idea and the idea of adding a star for each future state.
Evolution of the United States Flag No one knows with absolute certainty who designed the first stars and stripes or who made it. Congressman Francis Hopkinson seems most likely to have designed it, and few historians believe that Betsy Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress, made the first one.
The original Pledge of Allegiance "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands- one nation indivisible-with liberty and justice for all."
Official American flags (1st) Delaware December 7th, 1787 (2nd) Pennsylvania December 12th,1787 (3rd) New Jersey December18th, 1787 (4th) Georgia January 2nd, 1788 (5th) Connecticut January 9th, 1788 (6th) Massachusetts February 6th, 1788 (7th) Maryland April 28th, 1788 (8th) South Carolina May 23rd, 1788 (9th) New Hampshire June 21st, 1788 (10th) Virginia June 25th, 1788 (11th) New York July 25th, 1788 (12th) North Carolina November 21st, 1789 (13th) Rhode Island May 29th, 1790
Constitutional Amendment Issue "The Congress and the states shall have power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States"
The History Of Flag Day The Fourth of July was traditionally celebrated as America's birthday, but the idea of an annual day specifically celebrating the Flag is believed to have first originated in 1885. BJ Cigrand, a schoolteacher, arranged for the pupils in the Fredonia, Wisconsin Public School, District 6, to observe June 14 (the 108th anniversary of the official adoption of The Stars and Stripes) as 'Flag Birthday'. In numerous magazines and newspaper articles and public addresses over the following years, Cigrand continued to enthusiastically advocate the observance of June 14 as 'Flag Birthday', or 'Flag Day'.
Uncle Sam Uncle Sam is the national personification of the United States and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812. He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of flag of the United States—for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers. The first use of the term in literature is seen in an 1816 allegorical book, The Adventures of Uncle Sam in Search After His Lost Honor by Frederick Augustus Fidfaddy.