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Презентация на тему: Theory of Phonology


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Презентация на тему: Theory of Phonology


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№ слайда 1 Theory of Phonology
Описание слайда:

Theory of Phonology

№ слайда 2 The Syllable The Syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit. Theories of Sylla
Описание слайда:

The Syllable The Syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit. Theories of Syllable Formation & Syllable Division.Functional Characteristics of the Syllable.Graphic Characteristics of the Syllable.

№ слайда 3 Do such words as have one syllable or two? firemeal schism
Описание слайда:

Do such words as have one syllable or two? firemeal schism

№ слайда 4 Where is the boundary between the syllables in the word master ma-ster mas-ter m
Описание слайда:

Where is the boundary between the syllables in the word master ma-ster mas-ter mast-ter

№ слайда 5 1. The Phonetic Syllable. The stream of speech is characterized by differences i
Описание слайда:

1. The Phonetic Syllable. The stream of speech is characterized by differences in sonority from one point to the next. Which factors cause these sonority differences? Voicing (vocal cords vibration)The amount of air expelled from the lungsThe resonance quality of sounds

№ слайда 6 A hierarchy of English sounds according to their degree of sonority. Vowels amon
Описание слайда:

A hierarchy of English sounds according to their degree of sonority. Vowels among vowels, the open ones are more sonorous than the close onesLiquids /l/, /r/NasalsOther consonants among consonants, the voiced ones are more sonorous than the voiceless ones

№ слайда 7 2. The Phonological syllable. The syllable is defined as the lowest phonological
Описание слайда:

2. The Phonological syllable. The syllable is defined as the lowest phonological construction into which phonemes are combined. It consists of three segments: a central segment (the nucleus or peak of the syllable) an initial segment (the onset) a final segment (the coda)

№ слайда 8 The syllable may be defined as a segment of speech containing a peak of sonority
Описание слайда:

The syllable may be defined as a segment of speech containing a peak of sonority.

№ слайда 9 2. Theories of Syllable Formation & Syllable Division The vowel theory. There ar
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2. Theories of Syllable Formation & Syllable Division The vowel theory. There are as many syllables in a word as there are vowels.The expiratory theory. There are as many syllables in a word as there are expiration pulses. The sonority theory. There are as many syllables in a word as there are peaks of prominence or sonority.

№ слайда 10 Scale of Sonority Low vowels /a:, O:, P, x/Mid vowels /e, E:, q, A/High vowels /
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Scale of Sonority Low vowels /a:, O:, P, x/Mid vowels /e, E:, q, A/High vowels /i:, I, u:, V/Semi-vowels /w, j /Sonorants /l, r, m, n, N /Voiced constrictive consonants /v, z, Z, D/Voiced plosive consonants /b, d, g/Voiceless constrictive consonants & affricates /S, C, G, f, s , h, T /Voiceless plosive consonants /p, t, k/

№ слайда 11 3. Functional Characteristics of the Syllable. As a phonological unit the syllab
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3. Functional Characteristics of the Syllable. As a phonological unit the syllable performs three functions:ConstitutiveDistinctiveIdentificatory

№ слайда 12 Constitutive function Syllables constitute words, phrases and sentences through
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Constitutive function Syllables constitute words, phrases and sentences through the combination of their prosodic features: loudness – stress pitch – tone duration – length tempo Syllables may be: stressed- unstressed high, mid, low, rising, falling long, short

№ слайда 13 Distinctive & Differentiatory Function Is revealed through the phenomenon of “ju
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Distinctive & Differentiatory Function Is revealed through the phenomenon of “juncture”. Close juncture occurs between sounds within one syllable Open juncture occurs between two syllables

№ слайда 14 Mark the type of juncture in:a nation
Описание слайда:

Mark the type of juncture in:a nation

№ слайда 15 American scientists H.A. Gleanson, L.S. Harris, K. PikeConsider the open junctur
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American scientists H.A. Gleanson, L.S. Harris, K. PikeConsider the open juncture a separate segmental phoneme. They include / + / into the inventory of phonemes as a separate differentiatory unit. We +loan we’ll + own a + coke I + feel

№ слайда 16 Identificatory Function This function is conditioned by the pronunciation of the
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Identificatory Function This function is conditioned by the pronunciation of the speaker.The listener can understand the exact meaning of the utterance only if the syllabic boundary is perceived correctly – “syllabodisjuncture”. e.g.pea stalks - peace talksmy train – might rain

№ слайда 17 4. Graphic Characteristics of the Syllable. Division of words into syllables in
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4. Graphic Characteristics of the Syllable. Division of words into syllables in writing (syllabographs) is based on 1). morphological principles:the part of a word which is separated, should be either a prefix, or a suffix, or a root (morphograph).e.g. speak-ing, utter-ance, un-known 2). syllabic structure of wordse.g. un-pre-ce-den-ted 3). the meaning of wordse.g. house-work, spot-light

№ слайда 18 Structural properties of the syllable A syllable may be formed by : a vowel (V)a
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Structural properties of the syllable A syllable may be formed by : a vowel (V)a vowel and a consonant (VC)a consonant and a sonorant (CS)

№ слайда 19 Unlike the Russian language some consonants in English may form syllables: in un
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Unlike the Russian language some consonants in English may form syllables: in unstressed final position preceded by a noise consonant [l],[m],[n] become syllabicE.g. little ['lItl] blossom ['blPsm] garden ['gRdn]

№ слайда 20 Types of syllabic structure V – fully openVC – finally closedCV – initially cove
Описание слайда:

Types of syllabic structure V – fully openVC – finally closedCV – initially coveredCVC – fully closed

№ слайда 21 Examples of English syllable types: V – fully open → / E: / errVC – finally clos
Описание слайда:

Examples of English syllable types: V – fully open → / E: / errVC – finally closed → / It / itCV – initially covered → /nqV/ noCVC – fully closed → /nqVt/ note

№ слайда 22 Give examples of different types of syllables: CVCCVCCCVCCCCCCVCCVCCCC
Описание слайда:

Give examples of different types of syllables: CVCCVCCCVCCCCCCVCCVCCCC

№ слайда 23 The number of syllables in the English word can vary from one to eight : / bPks
Описание слайда:

The number of syllables in the English word can vary from one to eight : / bPks / box/ 'sItI / city/ 'fxmIlI / family/ sIm'plIsItI / simplicity/ 'An'nxCqrqlI / unnaturally/ 'InkPm"pxtI'bIlItI / incompatibility/ 'AnIn"telIGI'bIlItI / unintelligibility

№ слайда 24 Useful Rules for Syllable Division Never divide a word of one syllable.Never div
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Useful Rules for Syllable Division Never divide a word of one syllable.Never divide a word within a syllable.Never divide a word so that one of the parts is a single letter.Never divide a an ending of two syllables (a suffix) such as -able, -ably, fully.Never divide a word so that an ending of two letters such as –ed,-er, -ic begins the next line. (Exception –ly)

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