The city of USA - Boston Boston is a city of ethnic neighborhoods. Yankee descendants of the Puritan founders now live on Beacon Hill, in Back Bay, and in the suburbs. Some of the wealthiest live around Louisburg Square on the slopes of Beacon Hill. The neighborhood looks much as it did in the early 19th century. Rows of stately Georgian brick houses, with white doorways and lacy wrought-iron balconies, line the brick sidewalks and cobblestone streets.
The city dates its beginning from Sept. 17, 1630, when it was named Boston after a town in Lincolnshire, England, the original home of many of the Puritan leaders. In 1632 it was made the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Bostonians were leaders in resisting English rule. The Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party set the stage for war. The American Revolution began when British troops marched from Boston to Lexington.
Irish immigrants began to arrive in Boston in large numbers in the 1840s. They quickly establishedthemselves in city politics and in city services (such as the police force). Their descendants are especially numerous in the neighborhoods of Charlestown, South Boston, Dorchester, West Roxbury, and Jamaica Plain. The North End and East Boston are particularly heavily populated by Italians, who began to immigrate in large numbers in the second half of the 19th century.
Recreation for Boston's residents ranges from dog races to swan boat rides in the Public Garden. The Red Sox play baseball at Fenway Park. Other professional sports played in the area include basketball (the Celtics), hockey (the Bruins), and football (the New England Patriots). In April amateur athletes from all over the United States race in the 26-mile (42-kilometer) Boston Marathon. The Franklin Park Zoo, the New England Aquarium, and fine parks provide more restful entertainment.The Puritans who settled Boston in 1630 were not the first arrivals from Europe. Boston Harbor may have been visited by early Norse seamen. Captain John Smith explored and mapped the region in 1614. By the time the Puritans arrived, the Boston peninsula—called Shawmut by the Indians—was occupied by a lone English clergyman, William Blackstone, the sole survivor of an earlier English settlement.
Finance is a service industry in which Boston ranks second only to New York among United States cities. Large insurance companies, banks, and mutual funds have their headquarters in Boston. Financial institutions have built many of Boston's modern multipurpose buildings, such as the 60-story John Hancock Tower on Copley Square and the nearby 31-acre (13-hectare) Prudential Center.
In the late 19th century, Boston's culture grew apace. So did its population, with Irish, Italian, and other newcomers eventually outnumbering the Yankees of English descent. Economic and ethnic tensions grew, and political corruption was rampant. A police strike in 1919 brought two days of chaos; in the end, the governor of Massachusetts (and future president), Calvin Coolidge, called in the National Guard.
Within the city proper, more people are employed in printing and publishing than in any other manufacturing industry. The first newspapers in the American colonies were started in Boston. Today several major book and magazine publishers have their headquarters there. In Greater Boston, high-technology industries such as computers and electrical machinery draw on the latestresearch from MIT and other local universities. Highway 128, which rings the city, is lined with the consulting, production, and research-and-development firms that make Boston a national center for the computer industry.