By: Brittny Downing 900igr.net
Located on the North Eastern side of the United States.
In this presentation I plan to inform you about the state of New York and their Criminal Justice Systems. This presentation will be divided into two sectors: Institutional corrections and Community based corrections.
Population: As of 2006, New York was the third largest state in population after California and Texas with an estimated population of 19,490,297 as of July 1, 2008.
New York State is a leading destination for international immigration. New York City and its eight suburban counties (excluding those in New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania) have a combined population of 13,209,006 people, or 68.42% of the state's population. New Yorkers live in the safest large state in the nation, and the fifth safest overall, behind only a handful of relatively small states. Over the past 16 years, the crime rate in New York State has decreased 61 percent, and violent crime is down 63 percent.
The major ancestry groups in New York State are African American (15.8%), Italian (14.4%), Irish (12.9%), and German (11.1%). According to a 2004 estimate, 20.4% of the population is foreign-born. Catholics comprise more than 40% of the population in New York. Protestants are 30% of the population, Jews 8.4%, Muslims 3.5%, Buddhists 1%, and 13% claim no religious affiliation.
The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties, the Bronx, New York (Manhattan), Queens, Kings (Brooklyn), and Richmond (Staten Island). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. The ten largest cities in New York are: New York City (8,274,527) Buffalo (279,745) Rochester (211,091) Yonkers (196,425) Syracuse (141,683) Albany (93,523) New Rochelle (72,967) Mount Vernon (67,924) Schenectady (61,280) Utica (59,336) Cities and towns:
The crime rate in New York is about 36% lower than the national average rate. Property crimes account for around 82.7% of the crime rate in New York which is 39% lower than the national rate. The remaining 11.1% are violent crimes and are about 11% lower than other states.
New York National Avg. Population Rate (2004) 1,925 2,572
2004 Corrections Population New York has 282,215 adults under correctional supervision (prisons, jails, probation, and parole). The supervision rate (number of offenders per 100,000 people) is about 25% lower than the national rate. 2001 Taxpayer Cost Taxpayers paid 35% higher than the other states per inmate in 2001. Cost Per Inmate (2001) $36,835 versus $24,052
A Jail is a correctional institution used to detain persons who are in the lawful custody of the state. This includes either accused persons awaiting trial or for those who have been convicted of a crime and are serving a sentence of less than one year. Jails are generally small penitentiaries run by individual counties and cities, though some jails in larger communities may be as large and hold as many inmates as regular prisons.
The New York State Department of Correctional Services, guided by the Departmental Mission, is responsible for the confinement and habilitation of approximately 60,000 inmates held at 68 state correctional facilities plus the 916-bed Willard Drug Treatment Campus and the 100-bed Edgecombe Residential Treatment Facility.
Outside the prison fence:
Prison Hallway with cells to the left:
Vision Enhance public safety by having incarcerated persons return home less likely to revert to criminal behavior. Mission Statement Enhance public safety by providing appropriate treatment services, in safe and secure facilities, that address the needs of all inmates so they can return to their communities better prepared to lead successful and crime-free lives.
Create and maintain an atmosphere where both inmates and staff feel secure. Develop and implement positive individualized treatment plans for each inmate. Teach inmates the need for discipline and respect, and the importance of a mature understanding of a work ethic. Assist staff by providing the training and tools needed to perform their duties while enhancing their skills. Offer career development opportunities for all staff.
Operate with ethical behavior. Recognize the value of each person. Protect human dignity. Offer leadership and support to all. Offer respect and structure at all times.
Offer opportunities for inmates to improve all their skills, and to receive individual treatment services, based on their ability and willingness to participate. Provide appropriate medical and psychiatric services necessary to those requiring such treatment so each inmate can maximize his/her own rehabilitation. Enhance positive relationships by providing opportunities for interaction between inmates and their families. Establish a structured environment that fosters respect through disciplined learning.
Overall Program Units: Correctional Industries Education (Academic) Education (Vocational) Guidance and Counseling Division of Hispanic and Cultural Affairs Library Services Ministerial, Family and Volunteer Services Resource Management Special Subjects Substance Abuse Treatment Services Temporary Release Transitional Services Program
CLASSES OFFERED IN PROGRAM UNITS:
Earned Eligibility/Merit Time/Presumptive Release Program Group Counseling Program Incarcerated Veterans Program Sex Offender Counseling and Treatment Program
Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Programs (ASAT) Assessment and Program Preparation Unit (APPU) MICA/ASAT Program Behavioral Health Unit (BHU) Mentally Ill/Chemically Addicted (MICA) ASAT Chemical Dependency/Domestic Violence Program (CD/DV) Clean Start (ASAT) Comprehensive Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Program (CASAT) Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Treatment Program Female Trauma Recovery (FTR) Program Intermediate Care Program Mentally Ill/Chemically Addicted (MICA) ASAT Program
Mentally Ill/Chemically Addicted (MICA) Residential ASAT (General Confinement) Nursery Mothers Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Program Regional Medical Unit (RMU) ASAT Program Returned Parole Violators (RPV) ASAT Program Relapse Treatment Program Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program (RSAT) Sensorially Disabled Unit (SDU) ASAT Program Special Housing Unit (SHU) Pre-Treatment Workbook Program Special Needs Unit (SNU) Specialized Treatment Program (STP) Mentally Ill/Chemically Addicted (MICA) Pre-Treatment Program
Academic Outreach (Cell Study) Adult Basic Education Bilingual Program Certificate in Ministry and Human Services College Programs General Education Development (GED) Masters of Professional Studies Special Education Program Title I Program
Children's Play Areas Family Reunion Program Family Services Programs Family Visiting (Free Bus) Program Ministerial Services Visitor Hospitality Centers Volunteer Services Programs Art/Handicrafts and Music Recreation
Assist the offender while integrating back into the community following incarceration. Services Include: Aggression Replacement Training (ART) Program Community Lifestyles Inmate Program Associate Program Job Development Network Program Transitional Services Program
Metropolitan Correctional Center, New York -- New York, New York Metropolitan Detention Center, Brooklyn -- Brooklyn, New York
The community corrections system in New York is a typical “front-end” system that serves courts by processing felons and misdemeanants from pre-trial release through sentence after conviction by plea or trial. It also supervises nearly 200,000 offenders under probation supervision. The system involves 58 local probation departments, including departments for each county in upstate New York and Long Island and one department for the five boroughs of New York City’s Staffing, which varies from over 1,000 peace officers in New York City to only two in rural Hamilton County. Each department provides adult and family court services, with core functions in both the criminal and family court arena for intake, investigation, and supervision services.
There are 170 specialized alternatives-to-incarceration programs, providing pre-trial release, community service, defender-based advocacy, and services for unique populations. Approximately $90 million in state funding supports these functions’. During 1997, New York State had over 300,000 convictions. Approximately one-third of these offenders were incarcerated in state and local facilities. More than 183,000 offenders were under probation supervision throughout the state. Also in 1997, probation departments across the state conducted more than 90,000 regular presentence investigations. An additional 87,000 special investigations included pre-plea investigation, juvenile delinquency investigations, custody investigations, and the like.
To prevent crime and enforce the law: To protect people and property. To prevent and detect crime and other violations of law, pursue criminal investigations and arrest criminals. To ensure highway safety: To make our roads safe for all users. To reduce the deaths, injuries and property damage caused by motor vehicle accidents through vehicle and traffic enforcement and education. To render general assistance: To render assistance to all in need and protect citizens and their property from harm. To assist citizens in resolving problems in partnership with other service providers. Police Department Mission Priorities:
To promote peace and order: To provide disorder control and security in all types of natural and man-made emergencies. To provide for the safety and security of individuals and groups of citizens in furtherance of their rights, duties and responsibilities. To provide high quality support: To provide our members with the highest quality support services in an efficient manner. To support others by creating partnerships for safety and security with individuals, groups and communities throughout the state.
Serving since 1917 Vision: To build on our tradition of service. Mission: To serve, protect and defend the people while preserving the rights and dignity of all. Values: Integrity: To live and work in accordance with high ethical standards. Respect: To treat people fairly while safeguarding their rights. Customer Service: To ensure that everyone we meet receives dedicated and conscientious service. Continuous Improvement and Learning: To constantly improve ourselves and our organization. Leadership: To inspire, influence and support others in our organization and communities.
Integrating automated case management with risk, need and asset assessment Standardizing the assessment of probationer risks and needs to ensure that community corrections services are directed to the population that poses the greatest risk to public safety Improving probation case management and reporting Providing technology-based technical assistance Achieving a data harvest through a state-local automation effort to achieve real-time information Enhancing communication among community corrections professionals and agencies Promoting the use of alternatives to incarceration when consistent with public safety Deploying mandated and requested training developed through research
Alternatives to Incarceration (ATI) programs vary by counties in New York. Each county offers different alternatives to incarceration depending on the size, resources, and funding . Some examples of ATI programs offered are: Treatment Alternatives for Safer Communities (TASC) NYS Pretrial Release Services Electronic Monitoring Community Service
NYC CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING AND EMPLOYMENT SERVICES (CASES) Supervising Agency : Center for Alternative Sentencing & Employment Services Beginning in 1989, this agency's services have been assessment, community service, court advocacy, counseling, educational services, enhanced information service, field supervision, intensive supervision, job placement assistance, relapse prevention, recreational services, residential services and supervision. Target populations are first time felony offenders, usually between 16-21 years of age, or repeat misdemeanant offenders who are jail bound.
NYC CROSSROADS Supervising Agency : Center for Community Alternatives Crossroads is a comprehensive day treatment program for women with substance abuse problems and serves as an alternative to incarceration. Women are involved in the program for one year. In addition to treatment, including acupuncture and counseling, each woman is assigned to a case manager who is available to assist clients with family and other issues such as housing, economic support, health and medical services.
NYC FORTUNE SOCIETY DAMAS Supervising Agency: The Fortune Society, Inc. JoAnne Page, Executive Director This project promotes public safety by providing a day treatment service as an intermediate sanction for female offenders who would likely spend six months or more in jail. This program provides outpatient drug treatment services for a city-wide population of seventy five female felony offenders, 18 years or older, who are substance abusers. This alternative to incarceration program is 6 to 12 months in duration. Selected women must have a willingness to participate in the program and a stable residence in a drug-free household. This day treatment modality utilizes cognitive, behavioral, reality group and individual therapy, as well as fundamental elements of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous Twelve Step strategies.
NYC KINGS COUNTY JUVENILE OFFENDER PROGRAM Supervising Agency : NYC Probation Department Martin F. Horn, Commissioner This program began operation in 1986. Agency services are primarily intensive supervision, court ordered restrictions, counseling, educational services, housing assistance, job placement assistance, recreational and rehabilitation services for juvenile offenders.
NEW YORK CITY TASC Supervising Agency: Education and Assistance Corp. Lance W. Elder, President and CEO New York City TASC operates in Kings, Queens, Bronx and Richmond Counties as an alternative to incarceration for nonviolent substance abusers. The program works with misdemeanants, predicate and non-predicate felony offenders who are eligible for release to treatment.
PROBATION: There are 58 probation districts in the state of New York. BOARD OF PAROLE: The Board of Parole consists of up to 19 members. Each member is appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate for a six-year term. One member is designated by the Governor to serve as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Division. PROJECT IMAPCT: New York has a program called: Project IMPACT which is designed and used to extend the key principles – such as intelligence-based policing, partnerships among law enforcement agencies and timely use of accurate crime data – to suburban and rural areas so they can identify trends and develop and implement effective strategies to tackle violent and drug crimes that tear at the fabric of their communities.
New York has a rate 57% lower than the national average number of probationers per 100,000 people. Probationers (Per 100,000) New York National Avg. Probationer Rate (2007) 804 1,863
The DPCA works to advance public safety through the vital work of public and private agencies that comprise community corrections in New York State. DPCA is working to create a new vision for community corrections that identifies and emphasizes best practices while ensuring that community corrections professionals have the tools to implement new and more effective standards that continue New York's commitment to public safety.
New York has a rate 11% higher than the national average number of parolees per 100,000 people. Parolees (Per 100,000) New York National Avg. Parolee Rate (2007) 360 319
In 1817, the nation's first "good time" law, rewarding prison inmates with time off their period of imprisonment for good behavior, was approved in New York State. In 1876, New York State passed a system of "indeterminate" sentences setting a minimum and maximum term and permitting parole release of those who had served the minimum; those selected by prison officials for parole were required to report monthly to citizen volunteers known as "Guardians.“ On July 1, 1930, the Division of Parole was established in the Executive Department. A full-time Board of Parole was created within the Division and given the responsibility, formerly held by the Department of Corrections, for decisions on parole releases from prisons. Jurisdiction over releases from training schools and correctional institutions for mentally disabled prisoners was added to the Parole Board's authority in 1945.
A 1967 law extended the Board's release authority to persons incarcerated in local reformatories and gave the agency control over the conditional release of inmates under definite sentences. A 1978 law made the Division of Parole responsible for the release decision for juveniles convicted of certain serious felonies and for their post-release community supervision. With the surge in incarcerations in the 1980s and 1990s, the Division of Parole expanded significantly, as did the array of substance abuse treatment and other services available to help releases maintain a law-abiding life style. The Sentencing Reform Act of 1998, commonly referred to as Jenna's Law, added a new dimension to the Division through the elimination of discretionary release for all violent felony offenders while mandating court-imposed periods of post-release supervision of 1.5 to 5 years that the offender must serve after completing the period of incarceration imposed by the court.
The primary functions and powers of the Board are: Making Release Determinations: The Board determines which inmates serving indeterminate sentences in state prison may be released on Parole. The Executive Law (Section 259-i (2) (a)) requires the Board to personally interview inmates eligible for release. Inmates do not have the right to counsel at release interviews. The typical panel consists of two or three board members who are responsible for: - Interviewing the inmate; - Reviewing summary reports prepared by facility parole officers; and - Determining whether the inmate will be released to parole supervision.
Making Release Determinations: The Board sets conditions of release for inmates released on parole. In addition, it sets release conditions for inmates "conditionally released" to supervision by statute. These inmates earned time off their maximum sentence for good behavior. Sentencing reforms enacted in 1995 and 1998 change sentences for violent felony offenders. Violent offenders now receive determinant prison sentences and are released to parole supervision. without appearing before the Board for release consideration. However, the Board still imposes conditions of release for these offenders.
Revoking Parole: Under Executive Law (Section 259-i (3) (f) (x)), the Board has the authority to revoke parole when it determines a releasee has violated the conditions of release "in an important respect." Board action may return the individual to State prison or impose other appropriate sanctions. In some cases, Board action has been delegated to Administrative Hearing Officers. Under the authority of the Board, the Division adjudicates due process violations. All decisions of Board panels and Administrative Hearing Officers may be appealed. These appeals are made directly to the Parole Board. Also, the Board, at the Governor's request, interviews clemency applicants and makes recommendations to the Governor. The Board delegates its statutory authority to investigate requests to the Division's Executive Clemency Unit.
The Division of Parole makes a special effort to ensure that victims of crimes do not become forgotten parties in the criminal justice process. Parole has worked with the New York State Crime Victims Board and local district attorneys to help ensure that victims are aware of their rights with regard to the parole process. Landmark legislation in 1994 allowed for victims to meet face to face with a member of the Board of Parole, or to submit a written victim impact statement to the Board. Procedures have been established allowing the Division to maintain contact with crime victims and, at their request, keep them apprised of parole interview dates and decisions, and the release dates of the offenders who victimized them.
Victims can have additional face to face meetings with a Parole Board member prior to an inmate's subsequent reappearances. A verbatim transcript is now generated from these interviews and made available to the reviewing Board panel; Victims may submit video or audio taped victim impact statements if preferred. The following statutory and policy changes have enhanced victim access to the parole process:
Operation IMPACT – an initiative of the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services – supports strategic crime-fighting and violence reduction initiatives in the 17 counties outside of New York City that account for 80 percent of the crime upstate and on Long Island. Key principles of Operation IMPACT include: Information sharing and partnerships among law enforcement agencies Intelligence-based policing Timely use of accurate crime data Involvement of community organizations The following counties participate in Operation IMPACT: Albany, Broome, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Erie, Monroe, Nassau, Niagara, Oneida, Onondaga, Orange, Rensselaer, Rockland, Schenectady, Suffolk, Ulster and Westchester.
In addition to Division of Criminal Justice Services, the following state and federal agencies also participate in the IMPACT initiative: New York State Division of Parole New York State Division of Probation and Correctional Alternatives New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence New York State Police New York State Liquor Authority FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms U.S. Attorney’s Offices U.S. Border Patrol
Juvenile Delinquency in Community Corrections
Among the violence-related behaviors to be addressed by participating localities, special emphasis is to be given to reducing: (a) Gang involvement and gang violence, (b) Weapons possession and weapons use, (c) Truancy and school dropout, (d) Drug abuse and underage drinking, and (e) Recidivism among youth on probation and youth on aftercare.
Goal Reduce violent crime committed by children and adolescents by at least 10 percent in selected high crime cities. Greater reductions may be expected in some communities, depending on local historical trends in crime rates.
Overview of the Strategy New York State’s Youth Violence Reduction Strategy (YVRS) is designed to promote and support a coordinated attack on youth violence in selected high-crime areas. The strategy has components at two levels: locally developed coordinated action plans and state-level support and technical assistance to facilitate local efforts. Guiding principles: Due to the profile of needs, resources, and community environment each will differ from one locality to another. It is the responsibility of each participating locality to develop a coordinated action plan that is tailored to local circumstances but conforms to a common set of guiding principles.
NYS Office of Alcoholism & Substance Abuse Services NYS Council on Children & Families NYS Office of Children & Family Services NYS Division of Criminal Justice Services NYS Department of Education NYS Department of Health NYS Department of Labor NYS Office of Mental Health NYS Division of Probation & Correctional Alternatives NYS Division of State Police Fight Crime: Invest in Kids Boys & Girls Club Alliance of New York State YVR Strategy’s State Technical Assistance Team [state and non-profit organizations:
Strategy goals: Yield near-term reductions in youth violence through an appropriate combination of rehabilitation, deterrence, and varying degrees of incapacitation; Yield lasting reductions in the numbers of violence-prone youth through an appropriate combination of prevention, early intervention, diversion, and rehabilitation that will (a) prevent early onset of delinquency among the youth most at risk for lifelong violence, (b) focus intensive efforts on children and adolescents who are retrospectively identified as early-onset delinquents, and (c) intervene early with adolescents who begin to show signs of late-onset delinquency. Repair harm to victims and build community capacity to maintain safety for its citizens; Employ “best practices”—programs and strategies that have been found to be the most effective in reducing youth violence
Performance Indicators: Participating localities receiving fiscal support through certain state and federal funding programs are required to provide performance indicators on a periodic basis. Three general categories of indicators will be monitored: Core indicators of local violent crime, which are specified as part of the YVRS strategy and are required for all participating localities. Recommended indicators of local youth violence and risk factors, which are suggested as part of the YVRS strategy and should be monitored by localities wherever possible. Program-specific indicators to monitor the immediate outcomes of the specific interventions that comprise the youth crime reduction strategy in a particular locality. These are specified by each participating locality.
http://dpca.state.ny.us/newyorkcity.htm http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us/osp/downloads/guidingprinciplesfinalcombined2feb04.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jail http://www.bailyes.com/new_york_Jails_Courts_Police.htm http://www.docs.state.ny.us/mission.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_New_York_state_prisons http://dpca.state.ny.us/standards.htm http://dpca.state.ny.us/prob_directory.htm http://www.docs.state.ny.us/mission.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_New_York_state_prisons http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us/crimnet/ojsa/impact/index.htm https://parole.state.ny.us/INTROmission.asp https://parole.state.ny.us/VICTIMimpact.asp http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us/crimnet/ojsa/initiatives/youth_violence_reduction.html References: