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Презентация на тему: Etymology of the English word - stock


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Презентация на тему: Etymology of the English word - stock


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№ слайда 1 Etymology of the English word - stock Etymology (Gr. etymon “truth” + Gr. logos
Описание слайда:

Etymology of the English word - stock Etymology (Gr. etymon “truth” + Gr. logos “learning”) is a branch of linguistics that studies the origin and history of words tracing them to their earliest determinable source.

№ слайда 2 The Origins of English Words English wordsNativeBorrowed
Описание слайда:

The Origins of English Words English wordsNativeBorrowed

№ слайда 3 Definitions A native word is a word which belongs to the original English word s
Описание слайда:

Definitions A native word is a word which belongs to the original English word stock, as known from the earliest available manuscripts of the Old English period. A borrowed word (a borrowing, or a loan word) is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language.

№ слайда 4 Words of Native Origin Words of the Indo-European origin (IE)Words of common Ger
Описание слайда:

Words of Native Origin Words of the Indo-European origin (IE)Words of common Germanic originEnglish words proper

№ слайда 5 Words of the Indo-European origin Family relations: father, mother, brother, son
Описание слайда:

Words of the Indo-European origin Family relations: father, mother, brother, son, daughterParts of the human body: foot, nose, lip, heart, toothAnimals and plants: cow, swine, goose, tree, birch, cornThe most important objects and phenomena of nature: sun, moon, star, wind, water, wood, hill, stoneAdjectives: hard, quick, slow, red, white, newNumerals from 1 to 100: one, two, twenty, eightyPronouns – personal, except they (Sc.): I, you, he; demonstrative : that; interrogative: who Some of the most frequent verbs: bear, do, be, sit, stand

№ слайда 6 Words of common Germanic origin Nouns denoting parts of the human body: head, ar
Описание слайда:

Words of common Germanic origin Nouns denoting parts of the human body: head, arm, fingerPeriods of time: summer, winter, time, weekNatural phenomena: storm, rain, flood, ice, ground, sea, earthArtefacts and materials: bridge, house, shop, room, coal, iron, lead, clothAnimals, plants and birds: sheep, horse, fox, crow, oak, grassAdjectives denoting colours, size and other properties: broad, dead, deaf, deep, grey, blueVerbs: see, hear, speak, tell, say, make, give

№ слайда 7 Historical causes of borrowing The Roman invasion (1st c. B.C.), The introductio
Описание слайда:

Historical causes of borrowing The Roman invasion (1st c. B.C.), The introduction of Christianity (7th c. A.D.), The Danish conquests (11th – 13th c. A.D.),The Norman conquest (1066 A.D.), The Renaissance period (14th – 16th c. A.D.), Direct linguistic contacts and political, economical and cultural relationship with other nations.

№ слайда 8 The Etymology of Borrowed Words Celtic: 5th – 6th A. D.Latin:1st layer: 1st c. B
Описание слайда:

The Etymology of Borrowed Words Celtic: 5th – 6th A. D.Latin:1st layer: 1st c. B. C.2nd layer: 7th c. A. D. (the introduction of Christianity)3rd layer: 14th – 16th c. (the Renaissance period)Scandinavian: 8th – 11th c. A. D.French:Norman borrowings: 11th – 13th A. D.Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance periodGreek: the Renaissance periodItalian: the Renaissance period and laterSpanish: the Renaissance period and laterRussian: the Renaissance period and laterGerman, Indian and other languages

№ слайда 9 Celtic borrowings Place names: Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk, Ux (Celtic “river”, “water”)
Описание слайда:

Celtic borrowings Place names: Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk, Ux (Celtic “river”, “water”); London (Llyn “river”+ dun “a fortified hill”) - “a fortress on the hill over the river”cradle, cross, iron, flannel, tweed, lake (C. loch)

№ слайда 10 The earliest Latin borrowings (1st c. A.D.) words denoting things connected with
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The earliest Latin borrowings (1st c. A.D.) words denoting things connected with war, trade, building and domestic life: pound, inch, cup, kitchen, pepper, butter, cheese, milk, wine, cherry

№ слайда 11 Latin words borrowed into English through the Christianization of England (7th c
Описание слайда:

Latin words borrowed into English through the Christianization of England (7th c. A.D.) persons, objects and ideas associated with church and religious rituals: priest, bishop, monk, nun, candle, temple, angelwords connected with learning: grammar, school, scholar, decline, master, magister

№ слайда 12 Latin borrowings of the Renaissance period (14th – 16th c. A.D.) abstract words:
Описание слайда:

Latin borrowings of the Renaissance period (14th – 16th c. A.D.) abstract words: major, minor, filial, moderate, intelligent, permanent, to elect, to create.

№ слайда 13 Scandinavian borrowings (8th - 11th c. A.D.) Verbs: call, take, cast, die, wantN
Описание слайда:

Scandinavian borrowings (8th - 11th c. A.D.) Verbs: call, take, cast, die, wantNouns: law, egg, husband (Sc. hūs + bōndi “inhabitant of the house”), window (Sc. vindauga “the eye of the wind”) Adjectives: ill, loose, low, weakPronouns and pronominal forms: they, their, them, same, both, though.

№ слайда 14 Scandinavian borrowings (place names) Derby, Tremsby (-by: Sc. “village, town”);
Описание слайда:

Scandinavian borrowings (place names) Derby, Tremsby (-by: Sc. “village, town”); Zinthorp, Altharp (-thorp: Sc. “village”);Eastoft, Nortoft (-toft: Sc. “a plot of land covered with grass”);Troutbeck (-beck: Sc. “brook”);Inverness (-ness: Sc. “cape”);Applethwait, Crossthwait (-thwait: Sc. “forest glade”)

№ слайда 15 Norman borrowings (11th – 13th c. A.D.) Government and administration: state, co
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Norman borrowings (11th – 13th c. A.D.) Government and administration: state, country, government, parliament, prince, baronLegal terms: court, judge, justice, crime, prison, juryReligious terms: saint, sermon (проповедь), prayer, parish (приход), chapelMilitary terms: army, war, soldier, officer, battle, enemyEducational terms: pupil, lesson, library, science, pen, pencilArtistic and literary terms: image, character, figure, volume, designTerms of everyday life: chair, table, plate, saucer, dinner, supper, breakfast

№ слайда 16 Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period and later regime, routine, police, m
Описание слайда:

Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period and later regime, routine, police, machine, ballet, matinée, scene, technique, bourgeois, etc.

№ слайда 17 The Renaissance period borrowings (14th – 16th c. A.D.) Italian: piano, violin,
Описание слайда:

The Renaissance period borrowings (14th – 16th c. A.D.) Italian: piano, violin, opera, alarm, colonelSpanish: potato, tomato, cargo, banana, cocoa. Greek: direct (e.g. atom, cycle, ethics, esthete), or through Latin (datum, status, phenomenon, phenomenon, philosophy, method, music).

№ слайда 18 Other borrowings Japanese: karate, judo, hara-kiri, kimono, tycoon;Arabic: algeb
Описание слайда:

Other borrowings Japanese: karate, judo, hara-kiri, kimono, tycoon;Arabic: algebra, algorithm, fakir, giraffe, sultanTurkish: yogurt, kiosk, tulipPersian: caravan, shawl, bazaar, sherbetEskimo: kayak, igloo, anorak Amerindian languages: toboggan, wigwam, opossumRussian: bistro, tsar, balalaika, tundra, sputnik

№ слайда 19 Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Borrowing
Описание слайда:

Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Borrowings properTranslation borrowings (translation loans) Semantic borrowings

№ слайда 20 Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Translati
Описание слайда:

Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Translation borrowings (translation loans) are words and expressions formed from the material already existing in the English language but according to patterns taken from another language, by way of literal morpheme-for-morpheme translation.E. g. masterpiece < Germ. Meisterstück; Wonder child < Germ. Wunderkind; wall newspaper < Rus. стенная газета; collective farm < Rus. колхоз.

№ слайда 21 Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Semantic
Описание слайда:

Classification of borrowings according to the aspect which is borrowed Semantic borrowing is understood as the development in an English word of a new meaning under the influence of a related word in another language.E. g. Eng. pioneer ‘explorer’, ‘one who is among the first in new fields of activity’:: Rus. пионер ‘a member of the Young Pioneers’ Organization’. reaction, deviation, bureau

№ слайда 22 International words “Words of identical origin that occur in several languages a
Описание слайда:

International words “Words of identical origin that occur in several languages as a result of simultaneous or successive borrowings from one ultimate source” (I. A. Arnold, p. 260).

№ слайда 23 International words Words denoting science and technological advances: sputnik,
Описание слайда:

International words Words denoting science and technological advances: sputnik, television, antenna, bionics, gene, cybernetics Political terms: politics, democracy, communism, revolution Fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries: coffee, chocolate, grapefruitNames of sciences: philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistryTerms of art: music, theatre, drama, tragedyThe sports terms: football, baseball, cricket, golf.

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