Russia renders a great influence on ecological conditions and development in Europe and on the planet. On its territory there are more than 20 % of world's reserves of water and wood grounds. A key problem is preservation of these enormous natural riches. Russia possesses huge spaces of wild nature, not touched by people. However Russia has serious environmental problems.
WATER Water has the major value for a life and health of people and ecosystems. Many industries, agriculture, tourism and fishery depend on effective supply by pure water. Together with pollution decrease, the requirement for expensive sewage treatment(очистка) decreases also. In many cities municipal water supply works unreliably that creates threat of pollution of water, including serious pollution by heavy metals. One third of all water pipes and 17 % of sewer pipes require urgent replacement. The increasing value is got by work of system of water supply which in many parts of Russia is in a critical condition.
The system of gathering and removal of an industrial and household waste does not meet the requirements both in Moscow and in other cities. It has been collected 1,8 billion tons of a toxic waste. Every year this figure increases to 108 million tons. Emissions of motor transport are the main causes of high impurity(загрязненность) of air in many cities.
PROBLEMS Thus, there is a number of global, regional and transboundary ecological problems, such as inefficient use of energy; risks for health of the population as a result of water and air pollution; an exhaustion of natural resources and processing of a waste (including a radioactive waste); loss of natural systems and a biodiversity(биоразнообразие), and also pollution of the Baltic,the Caspian and the Black seas. The effective ecological policy and standards will promote economic efficiency and productivity lifting, for example, through application of purer and modern technologies and administrative practice. The close partnership between EU and Russia is vital both for them and for global ecological safety.