The mature Middle AgesGothic style XIII - XV centuries
Gothic style (gothic style)– (From ital. gotico, it is literally – gothic, i.e., Concerning to the German tribe it is ready),Art style, Become by the final stage in development of the European medieval art and existed Between the middle XII and XV–XVI centuries The most suitable the name– « Lancet style »Tendency up, ease of designs,Frame system and the ridge arch,Openwork decor, Painting by light, stained-glass windows.
Gothic art, replaced Romance, Remains cult to destination And religious on character.
Unlike the Romance period the centers of the European religious, cultural, political and economic life by the end of XII century of steel not monasteries, and cities.
And the centers of a public life of medieval city became a town hall (a building of city self-management) and a cathedral (a large Christian temple).
Architecture of the Gothic period The main architectural constructions of Gothic styleCity town hall Cathedral Town hall - a building of city self-management– Represented the big stone building with a hall for assemblies on a ground floor and subsidiary premises on the second. Above a town hall the tower - a symbolof freedom of city towered. Cathedral - model of a universe, a symbol of the Universe And some kind of the arch of knowledge of it, All art build which, expressed idea of heavenly and terrestrial hierarchy.
CATHEDRAL – THE CENTER OF THE CITY LIFE Cathedrals should contain all numerous urban population. Before cathedrals preachers acted, spent discussions of the professor and students.Built cathedrals city masters (instead of monastic, as before). Townspeople often were customers Or founders Works of art for an ornament of cathedrals.
GOTHIC CATHEDRALS considerably differed from monastic churches of the Romanesque period: The Romanesque church is heavy and stocky. The Gothic cathedral is easy and directed upwards.It is connected by that in Gothic architecture began to use a new design of the arches.
If in Romanesque church the massive arches are based on thick walls, that in a Gothic cathedral the arch leans on arches, and those in turn — on columns. Lateral pressure of the arch It is transferred flying buttress (external semiarches) and to buttresses (to external support, some kind of "crutches" of a building).
Such design has enabled To reduce thickness of walls, To increase internal space of a building. Walls have ceased to serve as a support of the arch, That has allowed to do in them set of windows, arches, galleries.
All semantic symbolics of a Christian temple repeats in its western portal. The door is a transition from one space in another, from wordly in sacred. Steps – a symbol of an ascention to the God. Three portals – a symbol of the Sacred Trinity. Portal – an input in a cathedral
Khimers - a sculpture in an image of a fantastic animal. Gorgylies – sculptures-water-drains. At the same time the belief in miracles, fantastic animals, fantastic monsters was kept. Their images meet in Gothic art also often, as well as in Romance: for example, in the form of sculptures — chimeras or sculptures-water-drains — gorgylies.
PAINTING OF THE GOTHIC PERIOD Sent-Shapel Church in Paris
Stained-glass windows Sent-Shapel– Chapel of the Lui IX, 1243-1248, arc. Pierre de Montero, Paris, France
In a Gothic cathedral the equal surface of a wall, therefore a wall list has disappeared has given a up the place to a stained-glass window — to the picturesque image from the color glasses fastened among themselves, placed in an aperture of a window.
Prominent feature of Gothic architecture: Arch of the lancet form.
In XII-XIII centuries did Color stained-glass windows. Ready color glasses cut according to figure, typed on a pattern, and then covered with a list. These elements fastened lead crosspieces and concluded in a metal frame.
Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris 1160-1245, Paris, France
Cathedral of Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris 1160-1245., Paris, France
Church of a chapel Sent-Shape In Paris (1245-1248),
Cathedral In Rheims (1211-1311), Where kings were crowned.
A cathedral in Ryane (1434-1514)