The Infinitive Teacher: Myakisheva S.V. Moscow, 2012
The Infinitive Примеры:Спрашивать Быть спрошенным Russia2 formsEnglish6 Functions6 FormsDouble Nature
The Infinitive Definition a non-finite form of the verbhas a double nature: nominal and verbalthe formal sign of the infinitive is the particle to
Functions of the Infinitive A subject A part of a predicative A part of a compound verbal predicate An object An attribute An adverbial modifier
Forms - Tense Distinctions
Simple (Indefinite) Infinitiverefers to the present or future They want to invite him.I like to go there. Passive:They want to be invited there.He hopes to be offered a promotion.
Continuous Infinitivedescribes an action happening now Active:They must be working now.
Perfect Infinitiveshows that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the verb with verbs:Seem, appear, believe, know, claim, expectActive:Steve seems to have gone to a lot of places.He claims to have met the Queen.Passive:John appears to have been offered a job.The book seems to have been translated.
Perfect Continuous Infinitiveemphases the duration of the action Active:He looks tired. He seems to have been working all morning.
In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below, as an example SA: Have they been sleeping?SB: No, they seem not to have been sleeping.
In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below Are they running?
In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below Has he lost his keys?
In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below Are they building the house?
In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below Has he hurt his knee?
In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below Is he painting the picture?
The Infinitive as an Attribute 1This is not the book to be found in any library.He has no desire to be appointed to this post.2The amount to be paid includes the cost of packing.
The Infinitive as an Attribute 3The firstThe secondThe thirdThe lastHe was the first to go away.
The Infinitive as an Attribute 4 after nouns, pronouns, some, any, noHe brought me a book to read.Give me something to drink.It’s a pleasure to work with you.
The Infinitive as a Subject To smoke is bad for health.To do it is to help them.After adjectivescold, difficult, easy, simple, desirable, angry, happy, glad etc.It is important to tell them the truth.
The Infinitive as a Subject With it + be + adjective (+ of + object)It was nice of him to remember my birthday.With “only” to express unsatisfactory resultHe called me only to say that he would be late.
The Infinitive as an Adverbial Modifier After in order to, so as, so as notI’ll write down the telephone number so as not to be late.enough, too, so+adj+asHe is clever enough to do such things.She’s too tired to go out.As if, as thoughShe waved her hands as if to say good bye.
As a Predicative His great desire is to visit England.My first duty is to study well.The thing to do was to stay calm.
The For-to-Infinitive Construction For me to go there is impossible.That was for you to find out.The teacher asked for the papers to be brought.The best thing for you to do is to forgive her.I stepped aside for the car to go by.She spoke loud for you to hear.
Complex Subject It is said – говорятIt is reported – сообщаютIt seems – кажетсяIt is likely – вероятноIt is said that they know Chinese well.They are said to know Chinese well.
Complex Subject was heard was madeHe is expected to speak English was known is said
Complex Object He is supposed to return tomorrow was to have returned to be working now to have been working here for many years
Complex Object is used in Passive Voice with the verbs:To see, to hear, to order, to cause, to allow, to expect, to know, to suppose, to report, to announce, to believe, to consider, to regardThe book was expected to have been published by the summer of 1999.
Complex Object seem, appear – казаться, по-видимомуprove, turn out, appear, happen – оказатьсяhappen – случаться, случайноThe child seemed to be sleeping.The task proved (to be) very difficult.He happened to be here when I came.
Complex Object He is likely (вероятно) is unlikely (маловероятно) to is sure (конечно) return is certain (несомненно, наверно)
Complex Object He is unlikely to come.
Complex Object To doTo be done wantaskorderKnow, believe=suppose, expect, find consider, think, meanWe suppose him to return home early.We find your research work (to be) very interesting.
The Infinitive as Parenthesis To begin with – начать с того…To cut a long story short – короче говоряTo make a long story short – короче говоряTo put it mildly – мягко выражаясьTo tell the truth – по правде говоряTo say nothing of – не говоря уже оTo say the least of it – чтобы не сказать большеTo speak quite frankly – откровенно говоря
Memorize the expressions: He is hard to please. - Ему трудно угодить.She is pleasant to look at. – У нее привлекательная внешность.I have something to tell you. - Мне надо вам кое-что сказать.There is nothing to be done. - Ничего не поделаешь.The house is to let. – Дом сдается внаем.Who is to blame? – Кто виноват?There is nothing left to do but left. – Единственное, что остается – это ждать.
The Use of the Infinitive without the Particle to After auxiliary verbs (shall, will, do etc)After modal verbs (except ought)After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to feel, to know etcAfter the verb to letAfter the verb to makeAfter the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing butIn sentences beginning with why
Литература: 1. Практическая грамматика английского языка, К.Н.Качалова, Е.Е. Израилевич, Москва, Дело Лтд-СТРИКС, 1994.2. English Grammar, Reference and Practice, Т.Ю. Дроздова, А.И. Берестова, В.Г. Маилова, изд-во Химера, Санк-Петербург, 2000.3. English Grammar, Глагол The Verb, Г.А.Эпштейн, Н.М. Казанская, Санк-Петербург, «КАРО», 2001.4. http://imm2000.ltd.ua/sport07.htm5. http://www.spletnik.ru/buzz/chronicle/20450-lou-vs-frost-pobeda-za-dzhudom.html6. http://smerkis.blog.ru/?year=2009&page=37. http://lori.ru/2055118. http://zhitzdorowo.ru/health-children/174-perelomy-sinyaki-i-rastyazheniya-u-detey.html9. http://forum.materinstvo.ru/index.php?showtopic=480298&st=3310. http://ru.123rf.com/photo_830543_young-businessman-is-waiting-in-the-airport-waiting-hal-and-he-checks-the-time-on-his-watch.html11. http://blog.mansberns.lv/lang/ru/page/5/12. http://ru.123rf.com/photo_7955158_young-woman-tired-from-work-in-the-internet-and-went-to-sleep.html