Non-verbal communication in English speaking countries Выполнила Широкобрюхова О.В.Учитель английского языка
“Actions speak louder than words.”
In essence, this underscores the importance of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is especially significant in intercultural situations. Probably non-verbal differences account for typical difficulties in communicating.The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Anthropologiststheorize that long before human beings used words to talk things over, ourancestors communicated with one another by using their bodies. They grittedtheir teeth to show anger; they smiled and touched one another to indicateaffection. Although we have come a long way since those primitive times, westill use non-verbal cues to express superiority, dependence, dislike,respect, love, and other feelings.
Non-verbal communication differs from verbal communication infundamental ways. For one thing, it is less structured, which makes it moredifficult to study. A person cannot pick up a book on non-verbal languageand master the vocabulary of gestures, expressions, and inflections thatare common in our culture. Other types of non-verbal communication,such as the meaning of colors and certain gestures, vary from culture toculture.
Definition “nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source (speaker) and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver (listener). It includes — but is not limited to: touchglanceeye contact (gaze)volumevocal nuanceproximitygesturesintonationdressposturesmellword choice and syntaxsounds (paralanguage)
Gesture A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. The boundary between language and gesture, or verbal and nonverbal communication, can be hard to identify.
Gestures can be also be categorized as either speech-independent or speech-related. Speech-independent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech; this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. Speech related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion.
One and the same gestures are different in different cultures.When going on a journey we try to know as much as possible about the place of our destination. We look through weather forecasts, political news, take a phrase book. But having been ready we are disconcerted when our gestures are not understood.
Both languages differ from each other according to types of culture, and nonverbal language of one nation differs from another one. When a gesture can be common and have a clear interpretation with one with another one. For example let's see the difference in interpretation of the three typical gestures, such as the circle of fingers, raised the thumb up and V-gesture of fingers.
Non verbal communication gestures. 1. If your interlocutor drums with fingers it can mean that he shows impatience to what is dull or he is nervous.2. If you interlocutors shrugs his shoulders, it can mean that he is not interested in what you are telling him.3. If he squeezes his hands it can mean despair and the feeling of hopeless.4. If your interlocutor squeezes his fists it means that he is aggressive and tries to control his anger.5. If his hands are weak and he turns his palms up holding them in front of him it means he is surprised, perplexed and is at a loss.6. If he unbuttons the jacket it means that he is ready for active actions.7. The hand crossed on his chest mean challenge, blame.8. If a man goes quickly and his hands hang freely the chin is raised up it mean he shows his resolution and confidence.9. If he goes, dragging his hand with hands in pockets his head is down it means that he is in low spirit, in despair in depression.
10. The palm on the check mean interest on … verge of surprise.11. If you interlocutor beats himself in the chin it means that a guess came into his mind, he is worried.12. If a man touches and rubs his nose it means he thinks about something.13. If he stand in the pose “hand on hips” it can mean confidence, superiority and challenge.14. If palms are put as a house it means that he thinks and shows his interest.15. If you interlocutor beats his head aside it means he plays fool or can make fun.16. If you interlocutor moves his glasses down a look above the rims perhaps he wants more … especially facts.17. If a man goes forward and back ward he seems to be nervous and anxious.18. If a man presses his bridge of the nose he is tired (it his glassed don't press on him).19. If a man sit at the edge of the chair it means he waits or shows his interest.20. If a man sits “leg on leg” and shaking his leg he is most probably bored.21. If a man makes a gesture with a tore finger he most probably wants to underline his point of view.22. If a man leans back and holds himself his neck with the help of crossed hands it means that he tries to relax or make a good impression.23. 24. If a man closed his mouth with his hand he doesn't want to be understood.25. If а man moved his hand behind hid back and squeezes it in a fist and the other hand holds it on the wrist he is reserved and tense.
“OK” or the “ring” of fingers.
This gesture was popularized in America in the middle of the XIX century, mainly by mass media that began the company to abbreviate words and typical phrases till their first letter at that time. There are different opinions what the abbreviation “OK” means, some think that it means “all correct”, but then as a result of orthographical mistake turned into “ Oll-Korrect”. Others say that it is the antonym of the word “Knockout” that means “K.O” in English. There is one more theory according to it this abbreviation is from the name “old Kinderhoor”, the birthplace of an American president who used this abbreviation (OK) as a slogan during his election company.
The raised up thumb.
The raised up thumb in America, England and has three meanings. It is usually used when you want to catch a passing car. The second meaning is “everything is all right”.The gesture with raising the thumb together with other gestures is used as a symbol of power a superiority as well as in the situations when somebody wants to “crush you with the thumb”.
V - Figurative sign figures
This sign is very popular in Britain an outrageous interpretation. During World war II Winston Churchill popularized this sign to mean victory, but the hand is turned with arear side to the speaker. If according to this gesture the hand is turned by the palm to the speaker this gesture has an outrageous meaning “shut up”. However V-gesture in any case means “victory” in many countries in England. But in many countries this sign also means the figure “2”.
To greet and to say good-by are different in USA.
The main communicative gestures and their origin.The main communicative gestures all over the world don't doffer from each other. When people are happy, they smile, when they are sad – they frown, when they are angry – they have angry look Nodding all over the world means “yes”, or agreement. Waving your head to mean “no” or disagreement is also universal and can be one of the gestures, invented in childhood. When a child has sucked milk he pushes mother's breast and moves his head from one side to another. When a baby has eaten, he rolls his head from one side to another to escape from the spoon, that his parents feed him with. So he is quickly used to nod to show his disagreement or negative attitude.
A wink is a type of gesture.They may be articulated with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling one's eyes.
Eye Contact and GazeIn USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others. Within USA, African-Americans use more eye contact when talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans. This is a possible cause for some sense of unease between races in US. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of sexual interest.
Haptics Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. These behaviors are referred to as "adaptor" and may send messages that reveal the intentions or feelings of a communicator. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent upon the context of the situation, the relationship between communicators, and the manner of touch.
TouchesTouches that can be defined as communication include handshakes, holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slapping, high fives, a pat on the shoulder, and brushing an arm. Touching of oneself during communication may include licking, picking, holding, and scratching.
Posture Posture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement, the difference in status between communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person’s left side is parallel to the other’s right side, leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech; a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication.
Movement and body positionPosture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean, body orientation, arm position, and body openness
SmileSmile is the only way to gain a partner, it is used and perceived well in any country and in any culture.Smiling is the most effective form of relations and finally the best compliment we can do for our interlocutor will be true interest to him and his problems. When going to other countries don't forget your smiles.
Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition.