Krasnoyarsk Krai The heart of Siberia Remizova AlinaForm 10 BTeacher: Kobzeva O. O.
Some facts Russian name: Krasnoyarskiy KraiRegion: Siberia East Area: 2,339,700 Population: 3,116,600 Population density: 1,3 Capital: Krasnoyarsk Capital, population: 914,200 Administrative structure: 48 districts, 16 cities,Taymyrsk autonomous okrug and Evenkiyskiy autonomous okrugUrbanisation 1989: 72,3% Local administration, adress: 660009, Krasnoyarsk, prospekt Mira, 110 Living costs: 99% of federal averageSubsistence level: 86% of federal average. Industry (1993, %): fuel and power generation complex (TEK): 12.8, treatment of raw materials: 62.3, machine building: 7.5, chemical industry: 7.1, light industry: 8.9.
Location Krasnoyarsk Krai is located in the remote geographical center of Russia along the great Siberian river, the Yenisey (the world's fifth largest by length and volume), and its tributaries. West of the Yenisey, Krasnoyarsk Krai begins the unending flat sea of taiga and tundra that ends with the Ural Mountains, while the majority of the Krai (to the east of the Yenisey) is covered by the beautiful mountainous wild of the Sayan Mountain Range and the Putoran Plateau.
Climate On these pictures you can see Norilsk city:in winter (picture above)in summer (picture below)The climate is strongly continental with big variations of temperature during one year. For the central and southern regions where most of the krai's population lives long winters and short, hot summers are characteristic. The territory of Krasnoyarsk krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: Arctic, Sub-Arctic, and moderate. While on the north there are less than 40 days with temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F), on the south there are about 110–120 such days.The average temperature of January is −36 °C (−32.8 °F) in the north and −18 °C (−0.4 °F) in the south. The average temperature of July is 10 °C (50 °F) in the north and 20 °C (68 °F) in the south. The annual precipitation is 316 millimeters (12.4 in) (up to 1,200 millimeters (47 in) in foothills of Sayan Mountains). Snow covers the central regions of the krai since early November till late March. The mountains of Sayans that higher than 2,400–2,600 m and ones of Putorana Plateau that are higher than 1,000–1,300 m are covered with snow permanently. Permafrost is widespread, especially in the north.
Many important industrial cities of Krasnoyarsk krai, such as Krasnoyarsk, Norilsk, Achinsk, Kansk, Zheleznogorsk, and Minusinsk, suffer from environmental pollution.
Some famous places On the top of the Karaulnaya hill, originally a pagan shrine, later occupied by the Krasnoyarsk fort watchtower, the St. Paraskeba Chapel still stands. The chapel, displayed on the 10-ruble note, is one of iconic images of the city. Another unofficial symbol of Krasnoyarsk is the incomplete 24 storey tower. Construction of the tower had been started just before Perestroyka and then frozen due to the administrative crisis. The outline of the tower is clearly seen from many places in the city.A bridge near Krasnoyarsk carries the Trans-Siberian Railway across the Yenisei. When approved for the inscription on the World Heritage List in 2003, the bridge was described by the UNESCO as "an early representation of a typical parabolic polygonal truss bridge in Russia" which became "a testing ground for the application of engineering theories and the development of new innovative solutions, which had numerous successors".
Stolby The most popular place of attraction for tourists visiting Krasnoyarsk Krai is the huge national nature reserve Stolby or the Rock Pillars. Stolby covers an area of 470 km² (181 mile²) with numerous giant granite rocks formations up to 100 meters high, many of very extraordinary shapes. Stolby is also a major rock climbing location, many local climbers intentionally do not use any belaying equipment and call their extreme sport "stolbizm", which is known around the world as solo climbing.
Some facts about Capital There are a number of local holidays celebrated annually in Krasnoyarsk. The most significant holiday is the Day of the City celebrated in June, usually with the carnival. Other holidays and cultural events are: the Mana Festival usually held on last weekend in June with the traditional bard contest, the International Museum Biennale traditionally held in the Krasnoyarsk Cultural/Historical Center, the avant-garde Museum Night festival dedicated to the International Museum Day (May 18), the Jazz on Yenisey festival, the Stolbist Day held many times a year celebrating the traditions of mountain climbing in the Stolby national reserve, the Bikers' Rally.Krasnoyarsk has a number of local television companies and the highly-developed telecommunications, many districts of the city have LAN-based broadband Internet access.The city is also home to the Krasnoyarsk Children's Choir a world-renowned choir that tours in many countries as The Little Eagles of Siberia.
Population. Ethnic groups The population of the krai mostly consists of Russians, and some other peoples of the former Soviet Union. The indigenous Siberian peoples make up no more than 1% of the population.The 2002 Census reported the national composition as (see the diagram) and many other groups of less than eight hundred persons each.An additional 0.56% of residents declined to state their nationality on the census questionnaire.
Language Of Russia's estimated 150m population, it is thought that over 81% speak the official language of Russian as their first and only language. Most speakers of a minority language are also bilingual speakers of Russian. There are over 100 minority languages spoken in Krasnoyarskiy Krai, the most popular of which is Tatar (Tartar), spoken by more than 3% of the Krai 's population.Other minority languages include Ukrainian, Chuvash, Bashkir, Mordvin, Circassian and Chechen.
Immigrants The population of Krasnoyarsk Krai has grown extensively because of the vast, often illegal immigration in search for work.The two biggest Estonian village communities (Upper Suetuk and Haidak) are located in Krasnoyarsk Krai, and each of them had about 200 inhabitants in 2008, mostly Estonians. Another immigrant group is the Chinese who, unlike other foreign workers, are employed in much more lucrative areas and often form business partnerships with local companies. Many Chinese trade at the bazaars, and there is even a special large Chinese bazaar named Sodruzhestvo (Russian for fellowship), and the Chinese Trading Town (known in Russian as Китайский торговый город) or colloquially Kitai-gorod situated at .
Structure of migration Government realized regional and federal target programs including out-migration of population living in Northern territories, as well as out-migration from slum dwelling and troubled housing according to the National project “Affordable and comfortable accommodation for Russian citizens” and reconstructed metallurgical enterprises — “RUSAL — Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant” JSC, Polar branch “MMC Norilsk Nickel” JSC , so there is no common sense in migration to anywhere. Among the regions of the Russian Federation the Krai is one of the 20 most successful regions (the 17th place).
Resources: Encyclopedia of Cyril and Mefodiyhttp://www.estemb.ruhttp://www.famouswhy.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krasnoyarsk_Kraihttp://www.absoluteastronomy.comhttp://visualrian.com/imageshttp://kraspoisk.ru/images