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Презентация на тему: Food


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Презентация на тему: Food


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№ слайда 1 Food Safety 900igr.net Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State Uni
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Food Safety 900igr.net Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 2 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Overview O
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Overview Organisms History Epidemiology Transmission Foodborne illness Prevention and Control Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 3 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Organisms
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Organisms Estimated 250 foodborne pathogens Foodborne illness 2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting from ingestion of a common food Bacteria most common cause Also viruses, parasites, natural and manufactured chemicals, and toxins from organisms Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 4 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Foodborne
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had the highest number Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 5 History Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
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History Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 6 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 History Ea
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 History Early 1900’s Contaminated food, milk and water caused many foodborne illnesses Sanitary revolution Sewage and water treatment Hand-washing, sanitation Pasteurization of milk- 1908 Refrigeration in homes- 1913 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 7 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 History An
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 History Animals identified as a source of foodborne pathogens Improved animal care and feeding Improved carcass processing Surveillance and research Outbreak investigations Laws and policies regarding food handling Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 8 Epidemiology Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 20
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Epidemiology Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 9 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Epidemiolo
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Epidemiology Foodborne diseases each year in US Affects 1 in 4 Americans 76 million illnesses 325,000 hospitalizations 5,000 deaths 1,500 of those deaths caused by Salmonella, Listeria, and Toxoplasma Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 10 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Epidemiolo
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Epidemiology Many unrecognized or unreported Mild disease undetected Same pathogens in water and person to person Emerging pathogens unidentifiable Greatest risk Elderly Children Immunocompromised Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 11 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Surveillan
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Surveillance/Regulation Surveillance CDC FoodNet and PulseNet Regulation FDA Domestic and imported food USDA FSIS Meat, eggs, poultry National Marine Fisheries Service Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 12 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Surveillan
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Surveillance FoodNet: Active surveillance Established 1996 CDC, USDA, FDA, select state health departments Nine sites in U.S. monitor 13% of U.S. population California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Tennessee Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 13 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Surveillan
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Surveillance PulseNet: Identify cause Molecular fingerprinting 45 state public health labs certified Passive surveillance: Survey methods Hospital discharges Outpatient treatment facilities FoodBorne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System All states submit outbreak data Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 14 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Estimated
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Estimated Cost Economic Research Service - USDA Cost of top 5 foodborne pathogens $6.9 billion annually Medical cost Productivity losses (missed work) Value estimate of premature death Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 15 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Center for
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 16 Transmission Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 20
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Transmission Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 17 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Transmissi
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Transmission Oral route Contamination varies Organism, reservoir, handling/processing, cross-contamination Human reservoir Norwalk-like virus, Campylobacter, Shigella Animal reservoir Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, Listeria, and Toxoplasma Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 18 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Transmissi
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Transmission Contamination can occur at several points along the food chain On the farm or in the field At the slaughter plant During processing At the point of sale In the home Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 19 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Produce Pr
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Produce Processing Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 20 Important Organisms Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State Univer
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Important Organisms Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 21 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Important
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Important Organisms Norwalk-like viruses Campylobacter Salmonella E. coli O157:H7 Clostridium botulinum Shigella spp Toxoplasma Emerging organisms Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 22 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Pathogen N
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Pathogen No. of Cases Salmonella 6,017 Campylobacter 5,215 Shigella 3,021 Cryptosporidium 480 E. coli 0157 443 Yersinia 161 Listeria 138 Vibrio 110 Cyclospora 15 Total in 2003 15,600 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 23 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 MMWR Cente
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 MMWR Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 24 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 MMWR Cente
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 MMWR Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 25 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Center for
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 26 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Norwalk-li
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Norwalk-like Viruses Norovirus; Caliciviridae family Most common foodborne agent 23 million cases annually Sources Person-to-person Shed in human feces, vomitus Outbreaks in daycares, nursing homes, cruise ships Contaminated shellfish Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 27 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Norwalk-li
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Norwalk-like Viruses Small infectious dose Signs 12-48 hours post-exposure Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps Headache, low-grade fever Duration: 2 days Food handlers should not return to work for 3 days after symptoms subside Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 28 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Campylobac
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Campylobacter jejuni Leading cause of bacterial diarrhea 2.4 million people each year Children under 5 years old Young adults (ages 15-29) Very few deaths Can lead to Guillain-Barré Syndrome Leading cause of acute paralysis Develops 2-4 weeks after Campylobacter infection (after diarrheal signs disappear) Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 29 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Campylobac
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Campylobacteriosis Sources Raw or undercooked poultry Non-chlorinated water Raw milk Infected animal or human feces Poultry, cattle, puppies, kittens, pet birds Clinical signs Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea Duration: 2-5 days Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 30 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Salmonello
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Salmonellosis Gram negative bacteria Many serotypes can cause disease S. enteritidis and typhimurium 41% of all human cases Most common species in U.S. 1.4 million cases annually 580 deaths Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 31 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Salmonello
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Salmonellosis Sources Raw poultry and eggs Raw milk Raw beef Unwashed fruit, alfalfa sprouts Reptile pets: Snakes, turtles, lizards Signs Onset: 12-72 hours Diarrhea, fever, cramps Duration: 4-7 days Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 32 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 1972 1977
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Year 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Salmonellosis. Reported cases per 100,000 population, by year – U.S., 1972-2002 MMWR Most common serotypes: S. typhimurium, S. enteriditis, S. Newport Rate Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 33 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 E. coli O1
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 E. coli O157:H7 Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Surface proteins; toxin Sources Undercooked or raw hamburger; salami Alfalfa sprouts; lettuce Unpasteurized milk, apple juice or cider Well water Animals: Cattle, other mammals Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 34 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 E. coli O1
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 E. coli O157:H7 Signs Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, cramps Onset: 2-5 days Duration: 5-10 days Sequela Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) Acute kidney failure in children Life threatening Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 35 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 MMWR Cente
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 MMWR Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 36 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Botulism C
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Botulism Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin leads to flaccid paralysis Infants at greatest risk Annually: 10-30 outbreaks; ~110 cases Sources: Home-canned foods, honey Signs Double vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty speaking and swallowing Onset: 18-36 hours Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 37 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Year 1982
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Year 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Reported Cases 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MMWR Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 38 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Shigellosi
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Shigellosis Bacillary dysentery Most cases Shigella sonnei 90,000 cases every year in U.S. Sources: Human fecal contamination of food, beverages, vegetables, water Signs: Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever Onset: 2 days Duration: 5-7 days Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 39 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Year 1972
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Year 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Rate 15 10 5 0 MMWR Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 40 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Toxoplasmo
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii- intracellular protozoan 112,500 cases annually Pregnant women/immunocompromised at greatest risk Sources Infected cats, soil, undercooked meat Signs Fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 41 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Emerging P
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Emerging Pathogens Cyclospora (Protozoan) 1996, imported raspberries Listeria monocytogenes Sources Ready-to-eat meats, soft cheeses Signs Human abortions and stillbirths Septicemia in young or low-immune Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 42 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Center for
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 43 Prevention and Control Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State Uni
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Prevention and Control Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 44 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 HACCP Haza
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point To monitor and control production processes Identify food safety hazards and critical control points Production, processing and marketing Establish limits Monitor Applied to meat, poultry, and eggs Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 45 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 On Farm St
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 On Farm Strategies Testing and removal for Salmonella Serologic, fecal culture, hide culture Vaccinating Many serotypes Varying effectiveness Minimize rodents, wild birds Isolation of new animals Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 46 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 At the Sla
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 At the Slaughter Plant FSIS target organisms Salmonella and E. coli Control points Removal of internal organs Minimize contact between carcasses Proper movement through facilities Chilling Cooking processes (time, temperature) Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 47 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Irradiatio
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Irradiation Used since 1986 for Trichina control in pork Gamma rays Poultry in 1990/1992 Meat in 1997/1999 Reduction of bacterial pathogens Kills living cells of organisms Damaged and cannot survive Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 48 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Irradiatio
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Irradiation Identified with radura….. Does not affect taste quality Nutrients remain the same Handle foods appropriately afterwards Does not sterilize Contamination can still occur Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 49 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 USDA Recal
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 USDA Recall Classification Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 50 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 In the Hom
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 In the Home Drink pasteurized milk and juices Wash hands carefully and frequently After using the bathroom Changing infant’s diapers Cleaning up animal feces Wash hands before preparing food Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 51 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 In the Hom
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 In the Home Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating After contact with raw meat or poultry Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces Hot soapy water Defrost meats in the refrigerator Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 52 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 In the Hom
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 In the Home Cook beef/beef products thoroughly Internal temperature of 160oF Cook poultry and eggs thoroughly Internal temperature of 170-180oF Eat cooked food promptly Refrigerate leftovers within 2 hours after cooking Store in shallow containers Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 53 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Additional
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Additional Resources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/ U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.foodsafety.gov http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodborne/statemen.html Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 54 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Acknowledg
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

№ слайда 55 Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Acknowledg
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Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004 Acknowledgments Author: Co-authors: Reviewer: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH Radford Davis, DVM, MPH Jean Gladon, BS Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004

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