MODERN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
Acceptance in 1992 of the federal law "About education" meant the beginning of reforms in domestic higher education. This law entered concepts new to us: bachelor degree, magistracy, multilevel education system. It, without breaking the developed system, I kept and I included in new and old, one-stage system of training of specialists, providing to higher education institutions to be determined - by what program to prepare graduates. On the one hand, it opened new opportunities to higher education institutions and students, on the other hand, brought also some complexity connected with need of a choice of educational system.
The federal law "About the higher professional and postgraduate education" defines 3 levels (or steps) the higher education as follows 1996: first step: incomplete the highest with term of training of 2 years, second step: basic the highest (bachelor degree) with term of training of 4 years, third step: "certified specialist" with term of preparation of 5 years (earlier existing model) and "master" with term of preparation of 6 years (new model).
The BACHELOR - in an operating education system is the graduate of the higher education institution who has got a basic higher education (or, in terminology of the state educational standard - STATE, education in some chosen direction). Easier to say so: the bachelor is a graduate of higher education institution who studied in higher education institution of only 4 years and received fundamental preparation without any narrow specialization; has the right to hold all those positions for which their qualification requirements provided existence of the higher education (item 7 of Art. 6 of the above-mentioned Law).
And how specialization? How it can be provided? First, it is possible to specialize working at practice under the leadership of the skilled expert in concrete narrow area. And what to do if you got after higher education institution to such place where they simply aren't present? (in many regions very we will feel "hunger" on highly qualified specialists in the field of the right, commerce, management and to other specialties). Certainly, it is possible to continue "to swot away" sciences independently. If the higher education institution gave you really fundamental basic preparation - have to consult. But it not the best option.
More effective to do it within an education system - on that it and multilevel. that it is necessary - to continue the second option of ensuring specialization training on one of programs of the third level. Thus you have a choice of one of the following steps of the higher education
CERTIFIED SPECIALIST. If decided to receive qualification "certified specialist", it is necessary to study 1 more year (on condition of coincidence of programs actually training "behind a school desk" lasts 1 semester, further there is an independent work - a diplomirovaniye). MAGISTRACY - the best way for the bachelor to qualification tops. Training in it lasts 2 years and comes to the end with protection of final work - the master thesis and, respectively, with assignment of degree of the master.
That gives this variety of opportunities what to prefer? Everyone has to choose itself a personal educational trajectory, proceeding from own life situation (intellectual and financial opportunities, professional interests). Thus it is necessary to tell that the bachelor degree choice as a professional standard has the following advantages:
This type of qualification (unlike "certified specialist" it is accepted on the international classification and it is clear to employers around the world). Fundamental nature of preparation, its initial "nesuzhennost" allows to replace a profession easily, if necessary. According to STATE, programs of preparation of bachelors in the different directions are arranged so that allow to pass all in a year to one of whole "fan" of compatible professions (For comparison: the graduate trained on the rigid 5-year program of "expert" should receive a new profession according to the second higher education program for 2 - 2,5).
In total in 4 years after receipt it is possible to start professional activity and to find financial independence. In case of profession change the graduate having the diploma with qualification "expert" gains the second the highest, and it, under the law, always only the paid. The bachelor, arriving in a magistracy of other profile, continues education according to the program of the third level, i.e. it is free (certainly if passes on competition on the budgetary places).
About employment abroad. The foreign employer invites to a large number of workplaces simply bachelors, without stipulating even the preparation direction. It surprises you? Meanwhile, anything surprising in it isn't present as for so-called office work simply educated person, able to work with information is necessary to it, with the people, capable to prepare various documents and simply the fairly clever. To all these requirements the person with degree of the bachelor also satisfies.