Л. Л. РЯБОВА COMPUTERS For intermediate learners Практикум
LESSON I Text A. What is a Computer System? 5 elements of a computer system: Software People Hardware Procedures Data/Information Text B. The Evolution of Computers Generations of Computers
LESSON II Types of Computer Systems: A supercomputer A mainframe computer A minicomputer A microcomputer
LESSON III Delete Keys – Clipboard Technology: a liquid crystal display and an electronic stylus are used instead of the keyboard
LESSON IV Computer Software: Systems Software Applications Software Graphical User Interface
LESSON V Programs and Programming Languages (a brief history): FORTRAN COBOL ALGOL PL/1 PASCAL BASIC C
LESSON VI Input Hardware: Using a Keyboard (with keyboard entry) Not using a keyboard Terminals: A dumb terminal E.g. A financial transaction terminal A smart terminal E.g. A point-of-sale terminal An intelligent terminal E.g.An integrated workstation A portable terminal, a handheld terminal
Keyboard Entry Input Hardware MainTypes of Terminals: A dumb terminal A smart terminal An intelligent terminal
Popular Types of Computer Terminals Point-of-sale terminals (POS) Financial transaction terminals Executive workstations or integrated workstations Portable terminals Microcomputers used as terminals
LESSON VII Storage Hardware: Primary Storage - the main memory of a computer (a volatile form of storage , i.e. the data and instructions are lost when the computer is turned off.) Secondary (Auxiliary) Storage (a file cabinet) (a nonvolatile form of storage, i.e. the data and instructions remain intact whien the computer is turned off.)
Function of Main Memory or RAM To act as a buffer between the CPU and the rest of the computer system components The amount of RAM in a minicomputer directly affects the level of sophistication of the software used.
Data Representation: - in a binary form or a binary code Two most commonly used codes: ASCII (the American Standard Code for Information Interchange) EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) – the most popular code used for IBM and IBM-compatible mainframe computers
TEXT VIII The Anatomy of a Microcomputer Keyboard Monitor (VDU- visual display unit) System Unit which houses: the power supply the system board the storage devices additional components
LESSON IX General Features of Operating Systems An operating system - a master control program which controls the functions of the computer system as a whole and the running of application programs. All computers do not use the same operating systems. Some software is only designed to run under the control of specific operating systems. Some operating systems are adopted as ‘industry standards”. Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently, this is known as multiprogramming (multi-tasking in the context of microcomputers). It requires a powerful operating system incorporating work scheduling facilities to control the switching between programs. This entails reading in data for one program while the processor is performing computations on another and printing out results on yet another. In multi-user environments an operating system is required to control terminal operations on a shared access basis as only one user can access the system at any moment of time. The operating system allocates control to each terminal in turn. Some environments operate in concurrent batch and real-time mode. An operating system is stored on disk and has to be booted into the internal memory (RAM)
LESSON X Computer Networks Link computers by communication lines and software protocols.
Text A.Types of Networks: LAN- Local Area Network (a localized network usually in one building or a group of buildings close together, but now it is possible to connect LANs remotely over telephone links so that they look as though they are a single LAN) WAN – Wide Area Network (a network connected over long distance by telephone lines)
Text B: Network Configurations Star - all access devices are linked directly to the central computer Switched – the central switch is used to connect different devices on the network directly Ring – each device is attached to a network shaped as a continuous loop Bus/Ethernet – consists of one piece of cable terminated at each end to which all devices are connected. Each device is able to broadcast a message when it has detected silence for a fixed period of time.
LESSON XI Text A. A Brief History of the Internet. Text B. How to Plug to the Internet
LESSON XII Computer Viruses A computer virus – an unwanted program that has entered your system without you knowing about it. Generally consists of two parts: the infector and the detonator. Computer virus like a disease can spread (via floppies transported from computer to computer, or networks) to other computers. Generally, the work of the virus is either damaging data on your disks, altering what you see on your computer display, or doing something else that interferes with the normal use of your computer.
LESSON XIII Repairs Uni-medium devices Multimedia High-end multimedia a variety of media through our television: full-motion video, still images, graphics, sound, and animation School media: the instructor's words, text, audiotapes, graphics, and a variety of visuals and video
LESSON XIV Machine Translation (MT): History of development of machine translation systems Problems and achievements
LESSON XV Multimedia multimedia the combination of text, graphics, animation, sound, and video multimedia computer a computer suitable for running multimedia programs. It usually has a sound card and a CD-ROM drive. Computer-to-Video Conversion. How they work.
LESSON XVI Text A. Laptops, notebooks, flybooks Types and comparison of modern portable personal computers Text B. Wired Room Computer facilities in modern foreign hotels
SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS Internet Words Conversion Computer Security Working with Victims of Computer Network Hacks The Case for Reporting Debunking the Myths and Explaining the Basics Desktop replacements - CNET reviews
Glossary of computing terms and abbreviations Explanations of the terms and abbreviations which are used in the texts Examples: systems program a program that is part of a computer operating system and controls a basic function of a computer systems programming the writing of systems programs
USEFUL LANGUAGE FOR TECHNICIANS Names of tools, terms and directions which are used in manuals and in captions supplied with the drawings Useful for technicians, users and operators of PCs