WELCOME To the presentation of qualification research work on the theme: Assimilation of borrowed words in English by student of 405 group Toshmatov Sherzod
PLAN INTRODUCTIONChapter I. Borrowed words and their propertiesChapter II. The problem of assimilation of borrowed wordsConclusionBibliographyGlossary
INTRODUCTION The “guests from another language,” or borrowed words, permeate the English language. Through linguistic osmosis, these many thousands of words were taken over from one language by another during the course of English history mainly due to the constant uninvited arrival of invaders to the island.
Chapter I. Borrowed words and their properties The classification of borrowed wordsInternational wordsOrigin of words in English
1.1 Origin of words in English Etymologically the vocabulary of any language consists of two groups – the native words and the borrowed words. E.g., in its 15 century long history recorded in written manuscripts the English language happened to come in long and close contact with several other languages, mainly Latin, French and Old Norse (or Scandinavian). The etymological linguistic analysis showed that the borrowed stock of words is lager than the native stock of words. Uzbek language, as well as English has been in long and close touch with other languages, mainly Arabic, Persian, Russian.
1.2 The classification of borrowed words According to the nature of the borrowing borrowed words may be: borrowings propertranslation loanssemantic loans
Chapter II. The problem of assimilation of borrowed words AssimilationPhoneticGrammatikLexical
2.1 Phonetic assimilation of borrowed words Some French borrowings have retained their stress on the last syllable. For example: police, cartoon. Some French borrowings retain special combinations of sounds. For example: /a:3/ in the words : camouflage, bourgeois, some of them retain the combination of sounds /wa:/ in the words: memoir, boulevard.
2.2 Grammatical assimilation of borrowed words If a borrowed word loses its former grammatical categories and inflexions and gets new grammatical categories and paradigms by analogy with other English words we say the word is undergone grammatical assimilation. Sometimes the foreign inflexions are fallen off.E. g. sputnik, sputniks, sputnik’s
2.4 The degrees of assimilation 1. Completely assimilated borrowed words: cheese, street, wall, or wine.2. Partially assimilated borrowed words: bouquet, brioche.3. Unassimilated borrowed words or barbarism: Italian: ciao ‘goodbye’, French: coup d’etat
CONCLUSION Oral borrowings due to personal contacts are assimilated more completely and more rapidly than literary borrowings, i. e. borrowings through written speech.In the end of my qualification research work I can say I have learned many kind of borrowed words from which they were borrowed. And I have enlarged my knowledge.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y Ginsburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. M., 1979 pp. 72–82.2. Buranov J., Muminov.O. Readings on Modern English Lexicology T. O’qituvchi. 1985, pp. 34–47.3. Arnold I.V. The English Word. M. High School, 1986, pp. 143–149.4. O. Jespersen. Linguistics. London, 1983, pp. 395–412.5. Jespersen, Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford, 1982, pp. 246–249.5. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford 1964. pp. 147, 167, V.D. Arakin English Russian Dictionary. M. Russky Yazyk, 1978 pp. 23–24, 117–119, 133–134.7. Abayev V.I. Homonyms T. O’qituvchi, 1981, pp. 4–5, 8, 26–29.8. Smirnitsky A.I. Homonyms in English M.,1977, pp.57–59, 89–90.9. Dubenets E.M. Modern English Lexicology (Course of Lectures) M., Moscow State Teacher Training University Publishers, 2004, pp. 17–31.10. Akhmanova O.S. Lexicology: Theory and Method. M. 1972, pp. 59–66.
A lot thanks for all the stuff of the Faculty of Foreign Languages THE END