England “This blessed plot, this realm, this England.” William Shakespeare
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The UK- The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain- England, Wales. Land- 244,000sq km Population- over 57,1 mln (1991) Capital- London Largest cities- Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Cardiff, Belfast. Languages- English, Welsh, Gaelic Main PoliticalParties- The Conservative Party, the Labour party
The national flag of the United Kingdom The national flag of the United Kingdom is known as the Union Jack- ‘Union’ for union of England and Scotland in 1606, ‘Jack’ because the flag is flown on the jack staff (a small flagstaff) of ships to show their nationality. Properly the national flag is called the Union flag. It is made up three crosses: St George’s cross of England, St Andrew’s cross of Scotland and St Patrick’s cross of Ireland (now representing Northern Ireland).
England is one of the four nations which has always played the most powerful part in the history of the British isles. 1066 is the most famous date in English history. This is the date of the successful Norman invasion of England when Norman leader, known in history as ‘William the Conqueror’, became king of the whole of England. The Normans introduced the strong system of government and the Kingdom became the most powerful political force in the British Isles. The authority of the British gradually extended to other parts of these islands in the next centuries. It was in this period that Parliament began its gradual evolution into the democratic body is today. England is often subdivided into three parts: the south, the Midlands and the North.
The landscape is varied. The climate is warmer than in the other areas. There are hundreds of miles of sea coast which vary from flat, sandy or stony beaches to high rocky cliffs. The mild and sunny climate makes the south coast popular with holiday-makers. Some coastal resorts are famous, Brighton among them. Somerset, Devon and Cornwall are rural counties, tucked away with hidden fishing hamlets and Britain’s warmest weather in winter. There are high, bare hills, rock and deep wooded valleys. Inland, the landscape is gentle and green; it is famous for its fertile farmland, the calm, tranquil and quiet beauty of its countryside. One of the most beautiful countries in the south of England is certainly Kent. It is known as the Garden of England, because it is famous of its picturesque orchards which produce a lot of fruit and vegetables. Another area in the country is known as the Fens and lies to the east of Cambridge. This land was drained and now the Fen country consists of miles of flat land with almost no trees or hedges.
The midlands The Midlands Region has much farming land, but this part of the country is better known as an industrial area, one of England’s most productive regions. Birmingham which is often called ‘the Big Heart of England’, is the most important city of the Midlands. It is the second largest city in the UK. Birmingham and the neighboring industrial city of Coventry are famous for engineering, especially car production. Derby is another engineering centre. Rolls Royce make aero engines and cars there. The Potteries is another industrial area in the Midlands. It lies around the city of Stoke-on-Trent and produces china, crockery and all kinds of ceramics, some of which are famous worldwide, Wedgwood among them. The west Midlands, another industrialized area where there are many collieries and steelworks, is known as Black Country because of the black smoke and blackened buildings there. In contrast, the Midlands region has some beautiful picturesque countryside in the Peak District with its National Park.
The North The weather is considerably colder. There is almost always snow in winter. This is a region of great natural beauty although industry of some kind has existed here for hundreds of years. There is a great contrast in the North between the beautiful open, hilly countryside and the industrial towns and mining villages. In parts of the North- in Yorkshire particularly- there are gentle wooded valleys and green pastures and excellent farming land. West Yorkshire is very good country for sheep-farming land, and it has long been Britain’s most important area for the wool industry. Coal is one of the few natural resources found in the North of England Some famous industrial cities in the North are Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds and Newcastle-on-Tyne.
London Today, more than 200 years later, Johnson’s words still ring true. There are few places that offer such a variety of sights, entertainments, educational and business opportunities, world-famous museums and theatres, and superb shopping. London draws people from all over the world. Some come on business, some come to study, to work or on holiday. London is naturally a very English city, yet it is the least typical of Britain as it is very cosmopolitan, containing goods, food and entertainment, as well as people, from many countries of the world. London spreads its influence over much of the southern areas of England; it gives work to millions of people who live not only in the inner-city areas but in surrounding districts. Some people even commute over 100 miles every day to work in London. There is much in London which fascinates visitors and inspires the affection of Londoners: the splendor of the royal palaces and the Houses of Parliament, the dignity of St. Paul’s Cathedral and many monuments, the fine architecture of numerous historic buildings, and the beautiful parks.
Trafalgar Square It's the heart of visitors' London, beating with tour buses, cameras and flocks of persistent pigeons. On the square's northern edge is the cash-strapped National Gallery, which has one of the world's most impressive art collections. Famous paintings include Cézanne's The Bathers and van Eyck's Arnolfini Wedding. Entry to the gallery is free, which means if you feel like dropping in and looking at just one or two pictures, you can do so at your leisure without feeling obliged to cover extensive territory.
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the Queen. When the flag is up it means that the Queen is in the palace. Changing of the guards takes place in its courtyard. The palace was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham.
Piccadilly Circus Piccadilly Circus has become an important meeting point – for traffic as well as sightseers. As its heart is a bronze fountain topped by a figure of a winged archer, popularly known as Eros, the pagan god of love. London’s places of entertainment are concentrated around Piccadilly Circus. This area is now famous for its theatres, clubs and shops.
Big Ben You can see the famous Clock Tower called Big Ben, which is the symbol of London. Big Ben is really the bell, which strikes the hour.
The Tower Bridge
Westminster Abbey The resting place of the royals, Westminster Abbey is one of the most visited churches in the Christian world. It's a beautiful building, full of morose tombs and monuments, with an acoustic field that will send shivers down your spine when the choirboys clear their throats. The roll call of the dead and honoured is guaranteed to humble the greatest egoist, despite the weighty and ornate memorabilia. In September 1997, millions of people round the world saw the inside of the Abbey when TV crews covered Princess Di's funeral service. Since then the number of visitors has increased by 300%, and the visit is now more restricted, with some areas cordoned off.
St. Paul’s Cathedral Half the world saw the inside of St Paul's Cathedral when Charles and Di tied the knot here in 1981. The venerable building was constructed by Christopher Wren between 1675 and 1710, but it stands on the site of two previous cathedrals dating back to 604. Its famous dome, the biggest in the world after St Peter's in Rome, no longer dominates London as it did for centuries, but it's still quite a sight when viewed from the river. Visitors should talk low and sweetly near the whispering gallery, which reputedly carries words spoken close to its walls to the other side of the dome.
The British Museum The most trafficked attraction in Bloomsbury, and in the entirety of London, is without a doubt the British Museum. It is the oldest, most august museum in the world, and has recently received a well-earned rejig with Norman Foster's glass-roofed Great Court. The museum is so big and so full of 'stuff' collected (read: stolen?) by Victorian travellers and explorers that visitors often make the mistake of overdosing on the antiquities. See as much as you want to see, not as much as you believe you should. Highlights include the weird Assyrian treasures and Egyptian mummies; the exquisite pre-Christian Portland Vase and the 2000-year-old corpse found in a Cheshire bog. With the removal of the British Library to St Pancras, the Reading Room is now open to the public, sadly making Reader's tickets a thing of the past.
The Tower of London
Hyde Park Humongous Hyde Park used to be a royal hunting ground, was once a venue for duels, executions and horse racing, and even became a giant potato field during WWII. It is now a place of fresh air, spring colour, lazy sunbathers and boaters on the Serpentine. Features of the park include sculptures by Jacob Epstein and Henry Moore and the Serpentine Gallery, which holds temporary exhibitions of contemporary art.
Sports and Games
Home Sweet Home
British food Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding is a traditional English family lunch on Sunday. The main ingredient is hot roast beef with vegetables and gravy. Yorkshire pudding is traditionally served with roast beef. It is a light savory dish baked from a batter of flour, eggs and milk. In Yorkshire it is often served as a ‘starter’, with gravy. Apple pie is a favourite sweet in England. There are lots of ways of cooking apples. The English bake them, stew them, put them in jam, and make sauce with them. Sometimes the cover them with pastry, to make an apple pie- which is delicious with cream. And sometimes they cover them with toffee and put them on stick, to make toffee apples. English Breakfast. In many countries breakfast is a snack rather than a meal, but the traditional English breakfast is a full meal. Some people start with a bowl of cereal and milk. In Scotland, particularly, they eat porridge (cooked oatmeal); it is a traditional warm beginning to the day. Next, there is always something cooked- usually fried. Bacon and eggs, sausages, tomatoes, mushrooms, even potatoes and bread are fried and eaten at breakfast-time. Yorkshire ham is also a breakfast specialty. Finally, there is toast and marmalade, and tea or coffee.
Thank you for your attention Created byM. Litvinova, M. Kurganova, A, Zhukovski Teacher: A.A.Lee School №731, Moscow