St. Valentine's Day
Every February, candy, flowers, and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. The history of Valentine's Day and its patron saint is shrouded in mystery, but we do know that February has long been a month of romance. St. Valentine's Day, as we know it today, is a mix of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition.
Many historians, however, seem to trace Valentine’s Day to an ancient Roman festival called Lupercalia. This was held on February 15 to honor Faunus, the god of animal life, hunting, herding, the patron of husbandry, and the guardian of the secret lore of nature. After Christianity spread, some think this pagan festival eventually became Valentine's Day.
Other experts connect Valentine's Day with two saints of the early Christian church. According to one story, St. Valentine's was a priest who would marry young couples against the orders of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, who believed that single young men made better soldiers. This story goes back to about A.D. 200.
Some experts state that St. Valentine was a Roman priest and physician. He was put into prison by roman authorities for his teaching and was beheaded on February 14 in the third century A.D. According to the legend he performed a miracle – he cured the blindness of his jailer’s daughter. Before the execution, he wrote her a letter signed “From Your Valentine”, an expression that is still in use today.
There also was another St. Valentine who was a good friend to children. Because he would not worship the gods decreed by the Roman emperor, he was put in prison. While he was imprisoned, the children that he had befriended missed him and brought him loving notes. Many of the notes expressed the thought that "absence makes the heart grow fonder" . He was supposedly executed on February 14 in A.D. 270.
Whatever the origin, Valentine's Day is celebrated in many parts of the world today and is a holiday for both young and old. This day became the date for exchanging love messages and St. Valentine became the patron saint of lovers. The date was marked by sending cards, poems and simple gifts such as toys and flowers.
Flowers Talk The rose and several other flowers say I love you to your special Valentine. Below are symbolic meanings for several varieties of flowers: Amaryllis - Pride Apple blossom - Hope, good fortuneBellflower - Gratitude Blue Violet - Modesty, faithfulness Bluebells - Constancy Calla lily - Splendid Beauty Camellia - Loveliness, gratitude Carnation - Distinction, fascination Cyclamen - Modesty and shyness Daffodil - Regard Daisy - Beauty & Innocence Flowering Almond - Hope Forget-me-not - True love Gardenia - Secret Untold Love Honeysuckle - Devoted affectionHyacinth - Loveliness Iris - Warmth of affection Ivy - Eternal fidelity Jasmine - Amiability Lemon Blossom - Fidelity in love Lilac - First Love Lilac (white) - Youthful innocence Lily - Majesty Magnolia - Perseverance Mimosa - Secret love Myrtle - Love and remembrance Orange Blossoms - Purity or fertility Orchid - Rare beauty Peony - Bashfulness Red Rose - Passion Red tulip - Declaration Roses - All roses say, "I Love You", but Rosemary - Remembrance Tulip - Love Violet - Modesty, affection, faithfulness Yellow tulip - Hopeless love
According to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated one billion valentine cards are sent each year, making Valentine's Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year. (An estimated 2.6 billion cards are sent for Christmas.) Approximately 85 percent of all valentines are purchased by women. In addition to the United States, Valentine's Day is celebrated in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia.
Written valentines began about 1400. The oldest one we know of was made in1415. A Frenchman, Charles, Duke of Orleans, was captured by the English in a battle. He was put in prison in the Tower of London. There he wrote valentine poems. Many of them were saved and can be seen today in the British Museum.
The customs of sending valentine cards started in Europe in the 1700s. Commercial valentines were first made in the early 1800s. Kate Greenaway, a British artist, was one of the leading makers of valentines. Her valentines are known for her drawing of little children and the varied shades of blues and greens that she favored.
Valentine Traditions Hundreds of years ago in England, many children dressed up as adults on Valentine's Day. They went singing from home to home. One verse they sang was: Good morning to you, valentine;Curl your locks as I do mine -Two before and three behind.Good morning to you, valentine. In Wales wooden love spoons were carved and given as gifts on February 14th. Hearts, keys and keyholes were favourite decorations on the spoons. The decoration meant "You unlock my heart!" In the Middle Ages, young men and women drew names from a bowl to see who their valentines would be. They would wear these names on their sleeves for one week. To wear your heart on your sleeve now means that it is easy for other people to know how you are feeling.
Valentine Traditions In some countries, a young woman may receive a gift of clothing from a young man. If she keeps the gift, it means she will marry him. Some people used to believe that if a woman saw a robin flying overhead on Valentine's Day, it meant she would marry a sailor. If she saw a sparrow, she would marry a poor man and be very happy. If she saw a goldfinch, she would marry a millionaire. A love seat is a wide chair. It was first made to seat one woman and her wide dress. Later, the love seat or courting seat had two sections, often in an S-shape. In this way, a couple could sit together -- but not too closely! Think of five or six names of boys or girls you might marry. As you twist the stem of an apple, recite the names until the stem comes off. You will marry the person whose name you were saying when the stem fell off. Pick a dandelion that has gone to seed. Take a deep breath and blow the seeds into the wind. Count the seeds that remain on the stem. That is the number of children you will have. If you cut an apple in half and count how many seeds are inside, you will also know how many children you will have.
Another tradition of St. Valentine’s Day is making special cakes.
Sweetheart Cookies Make these yummy treats for your Valentine.You'll need:1/3 cup of butter 1 cup of honey 2.3 cup of oats1/3 cup of nonfat dry milk 4 teaspoons of water 1 cup of flour1 teaspoon of baking powder1 teaspoon of salt 1. Mix together the butter and honey.2. Add the oats, dry milk, and water. Mix well.3. Add the flour, baking powder, and salt. Mix well. The dough should be soft.4. Use a rolling pin to roll out the dough. It should be 1/5 - inch thick.5. Use a heart-shaped cookie cutter or cut out the cookies in heart shapes.6. Bake the cookies for 10-15 minutes in 325° oven.
There’re many symbols of Valentine’s Day. Red Heart A long time ago, people believed that all the emotions were found in the heart. In later years, they thought only the emotion of love was connected with the heart. The heart is still a symbol of love, and it is also a symbol of Valentine’s Day.
Red Rose The rose was the flower of Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Red is a color that stands for strong feelings. This is why the red rose is a flower of love.
Ribbons Ribbons go back to the days when ladies gave ribbons to their favorite knights when they went to war.
Lace Lace comes from a latin word, it means “to catch”. Lace was supposed to catch the heart of a loved one. Hundreds of years ago, women carried lace handkerchiefs. If a woman dropped her handkerchief, a man nearby might pick it up and return it to her. Sometimes she might drop her lace handkerchief on purpose to encourage romance. Soon people thought of romance when they thought of lace. They began using paper lace to decorate chocolate boxes and Valentines cards.
Gloves Years ago, when a man proposed marriage to a woman, he “asked for her hand”. The hand became a symbol of marriage and love. Soon gloves also became a symbol of love.
Rings In some countries, men and women exchange rings when they become engaged or marry. Valentine’s Day is a popular day for giving an engagement ring. An engagement ring usually has a stone or jewel set in it.
Love Knot The True-Love ot Endless-Love Knot was usually a hand-draw, hand-coloured maze. It was a series of winding and interlacing loops with no beginning and no end. It is a symbol of endless love. They aren’t easy to make? And those who received them spent a long time figuring them out. This true love knot is from me. My love is endless you can see.Choose me valentine please do. My heart is filled with love for you!
Lovebirds and Doves Lovebirds are colorful parrots found in Africa. Most have red bills. They are called love birds because they sit closely together in pairs. Doves were thought to be favorite birds of Venus. They remain with the same mates all their lives. The males and females both care for their babies. These birds are symbols of loyalty and love. They are also symbols of Valentine’s Day.
XXX Lovers who affectionally sign “XXX”s to Valentine cards and letters are usually unware that the custom goes back to the early Christian era, when a cross mark, or “X”, conveyed the force of a sworn oath. It also was the first letter of the Greek word for Christ, Xristos. People kissed a cross to emphasize their compete sincerity in an accord, as a Bible was frequently kissed when an oath was sworn upon it.It was this practice of kissing the “X” that led to its becoming a symbol of a kiss.
Cupid One of the most famous valentine symbol is Cupid. He is a son of Venus, goddess of love. He could cause people to fall in love by piercing them with one of his magic arrows.
Love poems 'Let Me Call You Sweetheart'Let me call you sweetheart,I'm in love with you.Let me hear you whisperThat you love me too.Keep the love light glowing In your eyes so true. Let me call you sweetheart, I'm in love with you. ‘My Valentine”I have a little valentineThat someone sent to meIt’s pink & whiteAnd red & blue,And pretty as can be.Forget – me – nots are on the edge,And tiny roses, too, andSuch a lovely piece of lace,The very palest blue.And in the centre there is a heart.As red as red can be!And on it’s writtenAll in gold, “To you,With Love, From Me.”by Mary Catherine Parsons.
Love phrases Love is blind. Любовь слепа.Love laughs at locks myths. Любовь не замок не закроешь.Love will find a way. Любовь найдёт себе дорогу.Love me little, love me long. Люби меня не сильно, только долго.Love me, love my dog. Любишь меня, люби мою собаку.Love of money is the root of all evil.Сребролюбие - корень всех зол. All is fair in love and war.В любви и на войне всё дозволено.It is love mat makes the word go round. Любовь движет миром.
Wishes Sure as grape on the vine,February the 14th day So sure you are my Valentine –It’s Valentine, they say,The rose is red, the violet s blue,I chose you from among the rest,Lilies are fair and so are you!The reason is I love you best!The sky is high, the sea are deep,Time of remembrance,Thinking of you I cannot sleep.Of lace and bright flowers…If you love me like I love youHow dear to the heartNothing but death will part us too.Are those Valentine hours!You brightened my lifeFilled this card with friendly thoughtsTurning heart from stoneAnd mailed it out your wayAnd I will always love youAlong with special wishes for an extraFor now I’ll never be alone.- happy day!Best wishes today, on St. Valentine’s Day – happiness always!
Match words with similar meaning romance b. loveaffection c. tenderness, warm feelingshumorous g. funnydecorate d. make attractive merchant i. storekeeperspouse e. wife or husbandfeelings f. emotionscompanion j. friendfestival h. celebration sweetheart a. a boyfriend or a girlfriend
Cross out the phrases or words that don't belong Humorous a. serious b. funny c. comic Affection a. a hug b. a kiss c. angerMerchant a. customerb. seller c. floristFeelings a. love b. homework c. happinessCompanion a. a person b. a friend c. a car Festival a. a party b. a funeral c. a paradeSweetheart a. a boy friend b. enemy c. wife Spouse a. husband b. parent c. wifeDecorationsa. paper heats b. flowers c. dressesRomance a. relationship b. affair c. fight
Select the word that the best completes the sentence 1. On the classroom walls there are (celebrations, decorations, festivals). 2. Valentine's Day is a celebration of love and (romance, decorations, parents). 3. Valentines cards have messages of (affection, humorous, share). 4. It is traditional to send flowers to (celebrate, spouses, dedicate) on Valentine's Day. 5. On this day people share feelings of affection with friends, family and (flowers, affection, companions). 6. (Sweethearts, spouses, merchants) decorate their stores with red hearts and cupids on Valentine's day. 7. This is a day to celebrate (feelings, humorous, decorations) of friendship and love. 8. Some Valentine cards are funny; they have (loving, humorous, romance) messages. 9. Lupercalia was an ancient Roman (sharing, god, festival). 10. Many people call people they love (sweetheart, romance, spouse).
Match in the blanks with appropriate words(change into the past tense as needed) 1. Romeo and Juliet loved each other very much; but their parents didn't know it. They had a secret romance.2. The young man got married. Now he was a spouse.3. Mate likes John very much. She has good feelings toward him.4. The grandmother asked her grandchild to go with her on the trip to Washington. She asked her to be her traveling companion.5. The high-school students decided to have a large party to celebrate the spring. It was a beautiful festival.6. Martin told Helene: "I have warm feelings for you." He feels affection for her. 7. Everybody laughed when they heard the story. It was very humorous. 8. The couple was very much in love. They called each other sweetheart. 9. The owners of the stores formed a group association. It is a group of merchants.
Select the correct word form to complete each sentence Noun - romance, festival, humor, decoration, affection. Adjective - romantic, festive, humorous, decorated, affectionate.1. It is a romantic poem. 2. The Spring party was a festive occasion. 3. The TV comedy was full of humor. 4. The Christmas tree was decorated with colored lights. 5. He wrote a message of affection.
Match the famous couples 1. Carmen f. Don Jose2. Adam d. Eve3. Lady Di e. Prince Charles4. Napoleon b. Josephine5. David a. Bathsheba6. John Lennon g. Yoko7. Miss Piggyh. Kermit the Frog8. Tarzan c. Jane9. Grace Kelly i. Prince Rainier10. Rhett Butler k. Scarlet O'Hara11. Cho-Cho-San l. Captain Pinkerton12. Sophia Lorenm. Carlo Ponti13. Eurydicej. Orpheus
Answer the questions What is the first name for Valentine’s Day? (Lupercalia. The Romans called it so). Who wrote the Valentine poems on the wall of the Tower of London? (French Duke Charles, duke of Orleans was captured by the English in a battle and put into prison. He was put in the Tower of London. There he wrote Valentine poems for his wife in 1413 year). What is to get a red mitten on Valentine’s Day? (It means, that his or her girl or boy doesn’t Like him or her). What is the name of the first English actress who began to make and sell the first Valentines in England? (Kate Greenaway in the 18th century). When was St. Valentine executed? (On February 14, 269A.D.). Who and when set aside February 14 to honor St. Valentine? (In 496A.D. Pope Gelasins set aside February 14 to honor St. Valentine). When were commercial Valentine’s introduced? (In 1797 in G.B. and in 1870 in America). Who was the first American publisher of Valentines? (The first American publisher of Valentines was printer and artist Esther Howland). In what way did the young people celebrate the Feast of Lupercalia? (One of the customs of the young people was name drawing or love lottery). When did people all are Europe begin to celebrate St. Valentines’ Day as a holiday of love? (By 1400 people all over Europe celebrated this day as a holiday of love).
VALENTINE CONVERSATIONSWORLD SCRAMBLE eb imen nileantve orusy lyrty bayem ugh em ratel hyw ton weste ghint lamie em ducip uvl ay urse ryules ym veol thareestew agurs dronulfew yabb
VALENTINE CONVERSATIONSWORLD SCRAMBLE be mine valentine yours truly maybe hug me later why not sweet thing lamie em cupid luv ya sure surely my love sweetheart sugar wonderful baby
Happy Valentine's Day