Expressive means and stylistic devices (part III) The theory of stylistic devices, suggested by V.V.Gurevich. 1. Stylistic devices making use of the meaning of language units (figures of speech) 2. Stylistic devices making use of the structure of language units 3. Phonetic expressive means and devices
1. Stylistic devices based on the meaning of language units Metaphor Metonymy Zeugma Pun Oxymoron Hyperbole Litotes Epithet Periphrasis Personification, Allusion, Irony Rhetorical questions.
Metaphor (O.I.Glazunova) Nominal metaphoric phrase/ construction Predicative metaphoric phrase/ construction Genitive metaphoric phrase/ construction
Metaphor (O.I.Glazunova) (2) Adverbial metaphoric phrase Attributive metaphoric phrase Simile Phraseological units
Metonymy Synecdoche Container instead of content Characteristic feature instead of the object Name of the instrument instead of the action/doer.
2. Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units Repetition 1) Lexical repetition Anaphora – the repetition of he same elements in the beginning of several sentences. EX.: No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass, not a bird or beast, not even a fish that was not owned! Epiphora - the repetition of he same elements in the end of several sentences. 2) Syntactic repetition syntactic tautology or syntactic parallelism EX. Little Miss Muffet / She sat on a tuffet.
Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units (2) Climax – lexical or syntactic repetition of elements which is combined with gradual increase in the emotional colouring of the sentence. EX. I got to be agreeable to her. I got to give her presents. … I’m a slave to that woman. Anticlimax – the opposite to the climax (the final element is obviously weaker in degree). EX. Music makes one feel so romantic – at least it gets on one’s nerves.
Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units (3) Stylistic inversion full inversion (EX. Blessed are the poor in spirit) partial inversion (EX. How little had I realized, that…) Ellipsis - consists in omission of some parts of the sentence that are easily understood from the context. EX. The sea is just another sky, The sky a sea as well…
Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units (4) Asyndeton - is a deliberate omission of conjunctions. EX. There’s no use in talking to him, he’s perfectly idiotic! (reason: because) Polysyndeton - (opposite to asyndeton) the repeated use of the same connectors before several parts of sentence. EX. With the curling smoke of wigwams, With the rushing of great rivers…
Stylistic devices based on the structure of language units (5) Chiasm - a reversed version of syntactic parallelism. EX. Down dropped the breeze,/ The sails dropped down. Antithesis - a structure that stresses a sharp contrast in meaning between the parts within 1 sentence. EX. Some people are wise, some otherwise. One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
3. Phonetic expressive means and devices Alliteration – is a device based on repetition of the same or similar sounds at close distance, which makes speech more expressive. EX. Willy-nilly (volence-nolence), hurly-burly (=noise). Assonance – (a variant of alliteration) 1) repetition of the same vowels only. EX. The wear and tear of the city life. 2) an imperfect rhyme, when only vowels are rhymed. EX. Number – blunder, same – cane.
3. Phonetic expressive means and devices(2) Onomatopoeia – (sound imitation) – the use of words which denote some phenomenon by imitating its real sounding (produced by animals or natural noises). direct indirect
The use of Rhythm and rhyme in versification Rhyme is produced by alternation of regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. Why do you cry, Willie? ('UU/'UU) Why do you cry? ('UU/')
systems of versification (1) Syllabic system (French poetry) – the same number of syllables in different lines, whether stressed or unstressed. Tonic system (Anglo-Saxon poetry of old times) - the number of stressed syllables. Syllabic-tonic system of versification (modern English, Russian poetry) is based on the repetition of the same number of stressed and unstressed syllables.
types of feet (1) A Foot – is the division of poetic line from stress to stress 1. trochee (2 syllables:1-stressed, 2-nd – unstressed) EX. Peter, Peter, pumpkin-eater ('U/'U/'U/'U) 2. iambus (2 syllables:1-unstressed, 2-nd – stressed) EX. And then my love and I shall pace… (U'/U'/U'/U')
types of feet (2) 3. dactil (3 syllables:1-stressed, 2 – unstressed) EX. Why do you cry, Willie? ('UU/'UU) 4. amphibrach (3 syllables, the stress on the 2-nd) EX. A diller, a dollar, a ten o’clock scholar… (U'U/U'U/U'U/U'U) 5. anapest (3 syllables, the stress on the 3-nd) EX. Said the flee, ‘Let us fly’… (UU'/UU')
systems of versification (2) The type of foot and the number of feet in the line determine the Metre of the verse: trimetre, tetrametre, pentametre etc. Rhyme is created by the repetition of the same sounds in the last stressed syllable of 2 (or more) lines in a stanza.
Types of Rhymes (1) Male rhyme -the stress falls on the last syllable), the Female rhyme - the stress falls on the last but one syllable: EX. When the lamp is shattered (F.R.) The light in the dust lies dead; (M.R.) When the cloud is scattered, (F.R.) The rainbow’s glory is shed. (M.R.)
rhyming patterns (1) Paired rhymes –the rhyming pattern is AABB EX. The seed you sow, another reaps; (A) The wealth ye find, another keeps; (A) The robes ye weave, another wears; (B) The arm ye forge, another bears. (B)
rhyming patterns (2) Alternate rhymes - the rhyming pattern is ABAB EX. A slumber did my spirit seal; (A) I had no human fears: (B) She seemed a thing that could not feel (A) The touch of earthly wears. (B)
rhyming patterns (3) Enclosing rhymes - the rhyming pattern is ABBA EX. Much have I traveled in the realms of gold, (A) And many goodly states and kingdoms seen; (B) Round many western islands have I been (B) Which bards in loyalty to Apollo hold. (A)
Types of Rhymes (2) Eye-rhyme – when the elements rhymed are similar only in spelling, not in pronunciation: EX. Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find… Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind. Types of stanza: Ballad, Sonnet, Blank verse.