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Презентация на тему: Multilingualism


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Презентация на тему: Multilingualism


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№ слайда 1 Multilingualism
Описание слайда:

Multilingualism

№ слайда 2 is the act of using, or promoting the use of, multiple languages, either by
Описание слайда:

is the act of using, or promoting the use of, multiple languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. is the act of using, or promoting the use of, multiple languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

№ слайда 3 Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's populat
Описание слайда:

Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness. Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness.

№ слайда 4 A multilingual person is one who can communicate in more than one lang
Описание слайда:

A multilingual person is one who can communicate in more than one language, be it actively (through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through listening, reading, or perceiving). A multilingual person is one who can communicate in more than one language, be it actively (through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through listening, reading, or perceiving).

№ слайда 5 The terms bilingual and trilingual are used to describe comparable situations in
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The terms bilingual and trilingual are used to describe comparable situations in which two or three languages are involved. A multilingual person is generally referred to as a polyglot. The terms bilingual and trilingual are used to describe comparable situations in which two or three languages are involved. A multilingual person is generally referred to as a polyglot.

№ слайда 6 Poly (Greek: πολύς) means "many", Poly (Greek: πολύς) means
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Poly (Greek: πολύς) means "many", Poly (Greek: πολύς) means "many", glot (Greek: γλώττα) means "language".

№ слайда 7 Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during
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Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, first language (L1). Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, first language (L1). The first language (the mother tongue) is acquired even without formal education.

№ слайда 8 Children acquiring two languages are called simultaneous bilinguals. Children ac
Описание слайда:

Children acquiring two languages are called simultaneous bilinguals. Children acquiring two languages are called simultaneous bilinguals. Take note! In the case of simultaneous bilinguals, one language usually dominates over the other.

№ слайда 9 There is a possibility for a child to become naturally trilingual by having a mo
Описание слайда:

There is a possibility for a child to become naturally trilingual by having a mother and father with separate languages being brought up in a third language environment. There is a possibility for a child to become naturally trilingual by having a mother and father with separate languages being brought up in a third language environment.

№ слайда 10 Example Example An English-speaking father married to a Mandarin Chinese&nb
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Example Example An English-speaking father married to a Mandarin Chinese speaking mother with the family living in Hong Kong, where the community language (and primary language of education) is Cantonese. If the child goes to a Cantonese medium school from a young age, then trilingualism will be the result.

№ слайда 11 Some group of academics argues for the maximal definition of multilingualism. So
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Some group of academics argues for the maximal definition of multilingualism. Some group of academics argues for the maximal definition of multilingualism. Maximal: Speakers are as proficient in one language as they are in others and have as much knowledge of and control over one language as they have of the others.

№ слайда 12 Another group of academics argues for the minimal definition of multilingua
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Another group of academics argues for the minimal definition of multilingualism, based on use. Another group of academics argues for the minimal definition of multilingualism, based on use. Minimal: Tourists who can successfully communicate phrases and ideas even if not fluent in the native language of the foreign land can be considered as bilinguals.

№ слайда 13 Bilingualism as an individual attribute: Bilingualism as an individual attribute
Описание слайда:

Bilingualism as an individual attribute: Bilingualism as an individual attribute: a psychological state of an individual who has access to two language codes to serve communication purposes.

№ слайда 14 Bilingualism as a societal attribute: Bilingualism as a societal attribute: two
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Bilingualism as a societal attribute: Bilingualism as a societal attribute: two languages are used in a community and that a number of individuals can use two languages.

№ слайда 15 “Even if someone is highly proficient in two or more languages, his or her so-ca
Описание слайда:

“Even if someone is highly proficient in two or more languages, his or her so-called communicative competence or ability may not be as balanced” “Even if someone is highly proficient in two or more languages, his or her so-called communicative competence or ability may not be as balanced”

№ слайда 16 Linguists have distinguished various types of multilingual competence, which can
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Linguists have distinguished various types of multilingual competence, which can be put into two categories: Linguists have distinguished various types of multilingual competence, which can be put into two categories: Compound Bilinguals Coordinate Bilinguals

№ слайда 17 Compound Bilinguals Compound Bilinguals words and phrases in different languages
Описание слайда:

Compound Bilinguals Compound Bilinguals words and phrases in different languages are with the same concepts. Example: 'chien' and 'dog' are two words for the same concept for a French-English speaker of this type. These speakers are usually fluent in both languages.

№ слайда 18 Coordinate Bilinguals Coordinate Bilinguals Words and phrases in the speaker's m
Описание слайда:

Coordinate Bilinguals Coordinate Bilinguals Words and phrases in the speaker's mind are all related to their own unique concepts. Thus a bilingual speaker of this type has different associations for 'chien' and for 'dog‘.

№ слайда 19 In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant
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In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first language may be used to think through the second language. In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first language may be used to think through the second language.

№ слайда 20 In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant
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In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first language may be used to think through the second language. In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first language may be used to think through the second language.

№ слайда 21 A sub-group of the latter is the subordinate bilingual, which is typic
Описание слайда:

A sub-group of the latter is the subordinate bilingual, which is typical of beginning second language learners. A sub-group of the latter is the subordinate bilingual, which is typical of beginning second language learners.

№ слайда 22 Many theorists are now beginning to view bilingualism as a "spectrum or con
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Many theorists are now beginning to view bilingualism as a "spectrum or continuum of bilingualism" that runs from the relatively monolingual language learner to highly proficient bilingual speakers who function at high levels in both languages (Garland, 2007). Many theorists are now beginning to view bilingualism as a "spectrum or continuum of bilingualism" that runs from the relatively monolingual language learner to highly proficient bilingual speakers who function at high levels in both languages (Garland, 2007).

№ слайда 23 Distractive bilingualism Distractive bilingualism or Semilingualism.
Описание слайда:

Distractive bilingualism Distractive bilingualism or Semilingualism.

№ слайда 24 When acquisition of the first language is interrupted and insufficient or unstru
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When acquisition of the first language is interrupted and insufficient or unstructured language input follows from the second language, as sometimes happen with immigrant children, the speaker can end up with two languages both mastered below the monolingual standard. When acquisition of the first language is interrupted and insufficient or unstructured language input follows from the second language, as sometimes happen with immigrant children, the speaker can end up with two languages both mastered below the monolingual standard.

№ слайда 25 Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in these immigra
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Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in these immigrant children. Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in these immigrant children. Those who were literate in their first language before arriving, and who have support to maintain that literacy, are at the very least able to maintain and master their first language.

№ слайда 26 Receptive bilinguals are those who have the ability to understand a second langu
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Receptive bilinguals are those who have the ability to understand a second language, but do not speak it. Receptive bilinguals are those who have the ability to understand a second language, but do not speak it.

№ слайда 27 Receptive bilingualism is not the same as mutual intelligibility, which is
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Receptive bilingualism is not the same as mutual intelligibility, which is the case of a native Spanish speaker who is able to understand Portuguese, or vice versa, due to the high lexical and grammatical similarities between Spanish and Portuguese. Receptive bilingualism is not the same as mutual intelligibility, which is the case of a native Spanish speaker who is able to understand Portuguese, or vice versa, due to the high lexical and grammatical similarities between Spanish and Portuguese.

№ слайда 28 Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact. Widespread mult
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Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact. Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact. Multilingualism was more common in the past. In early times, when most people were members of small language communities, it was necessary to know two or more languages necessary for trade.

№ слайда 29 When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according t
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When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved: When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved: Diglossia Ambilingualism Bipart-lingualism

№ слайда 30 When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according t
Описание слайда:

When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved: When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved: Diglossia Ambilingualism Bipart-lingualism

№ слайда 31 Diglossia Diglossia If there is a structural functional distribution of the lang
Описание слайда:

Diglossia Diglossia If there is a structural functional distribution of the languages involved, the society is termed 'diglossic'. Typical diglossic areas are those areas where a regional language is used in informal, usually oral, contexts, while the state language is used in more formal situations.

№ слайда 32 Ambilingualism Ambilingualism a region is called ambilingual if this functional
Описание слайда:

Ambilingualism Ambilingualism a region is called ambilingual if this functional distribution is not observed. In a typical ambilingual area it is nearly impossible to predict which language will be used in a given setting.

№ слайда 33 Ambilingualism Ambilingualism Example: Malaysia and Singapore, which f
Описание слайда:

Ambilingualism Ambilingualism Example: Malaysia and Singapore, which fuses the cultures of Malays, China, and India.

№ слайда 34 Bipart-lingualism Bipart-lingualism if more than one language can be heard in a
Описание слайда:

Bipart-lingualism Bipart-lingualism if more than one language can be heard in a small area, but the large majority of speakers are monolinguals, who have little contact with speakers from neighboring ethnic groups, an area is called 'bipart-lingual'.

№ слайда 35 Some multilinguals use code-switching, a term that describes the process of
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Some multilinguals use code-switching, a term that describes the process of 'swapping' between languages. Some multilinguals use code-switching, a term that describes the process of 'swapping' between languages. In many cases, code-switching is motivated by the wish to express loyalty to more than one cultural group.

№ слайда 36 Sequential model Sequential model In this model, learners receive literacy instr
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Sequential model Sequential model In this model, learners receive literacy instruction in their native language until they acquire a "threshold" literacy proficiency. Some researchers use age 3 as the age when a child has basic communicative competence in L1 (Kessler, 1984).

№ слайда 37 Sequential model Sequential model In this model, learners receive literacy instr
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Sequential model Sequential model In this model, learners receive literacy instruction in their native language until they acquire a "threshold" literacy proficiency. Some researchers use age 3 as the age when a child has basic communicative competence in L1 (Kessler, 1984).

№ слайда 38 Bilingual model Bilingual model In this model, the native language and the commu
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Bilingual model Bilingual model In this model, the native language and the community language are simultaneously taught. The advantage is literacy in two languages as the outcome. However, the teacher must be well-versed in both languages and also in techniques for teaching a second language.

№ слайда 39 Coordinate model Coordinate model This model posits that equal time should be sp
Описание слайда:

Coordinate model Coordinate model This model posits that equal time should be spent in separate instruction of the native language and of the community language. The native language class, however, focuses on basic literacy while the community language class focuses on listening and speaking skills.

№ слайда 40 Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native lan
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Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can be transposed to the second language — the common underlying proficiency hypothesis. Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can be transposed to the second language — the common underlying proficiency hypothesis.

№ слайда 41 Early vs. Late bilinguals Early bilingual: someone who has acquired two language
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Early vs. Late bilinguals Early bilingual: someone who has acquired two languages early in childhood (usually received systematic training/learning of a second language before age 6). Late bilingual: someone who has become a bilingual later than childhood (after age 12).

№ слайда 42 Balanced vs. Dominant bilinguals Balanced bilingual: someone whose mastery of tw
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Balanced vs. Dominant bilinguals Balanced bilingual: someone whose mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent. Dominant bilingual: someone with greater proficiency in one of his or her languages and uses it significantly more than the other language. Semilingual: someone with insufficient knowledge of either language.

№ слайда 43 Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals Successive bilingualism: Learning one lan
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Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals Successive bilingualism: Learning one language after already knowing another. This is the situation for all those who become bilingual as adults, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life. Sometimes also called consecutive bilingualism.

№ слайда 44 Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals Simultaneous bilingualism: Learning two l
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Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals Simultaneous bilingualism: Learning two languages as "first languages". That is, a person who is a simultaneous bilingual goes from speaking no languages at all directly to speaking two languages. Infants who are exposed to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals.

№ слайда 45 Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals Receptive bilingualism: Being able to und
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Successive vs. Simultaneous bilinguals Receptive bilingualism: Being able to understand two languages but express oneself in only one. This is generally not considered "true" bilingualism but is a fairly common situation.

№ слайда 46 Additive vs. Subtractive bilinguals Additive bilingual: The learning of a second
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Additive vs. Subtractive bilinguals Additive bilingual: The learning of a second language does not interfere with the learning of a first language. Both languages are well developed. Subtractive bilingual: The learning of the second language interferes with the learning of a first language. The second language replaces the first language.

№ слайда 47 Elite vs. Folk bilinguals Elite bilingual: Individuals who choose to have a bili
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Elite vs. Folk bilinguals Elite bilingual: Individuals who choose to have a bilingual home, often in order to enhance social status. Folk bilingual: Individuals who develop second language capacity under circumstances that are not often of their own choosing, and in conditions where the society does not value their native language.

№ слайда 48 Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native lan
Описание слайда:

Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can be transposed to the second language — the common underlying proficiency hypothesis. Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can be transposed to the second language — the common underlying proficiency hypothesis.

№ слайда 49
Описание слайда:

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