Luxembourg by Natalia Lukutovagroup ROM-1-10
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Nestled away in a corner of Europe, surrounded by Belgium, France and Germany lies one of the EU’s smallest (just 2,500 square kilometers), and most prosperous country – the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg The country is the only remaining sovereign Grand Duchy in the world.
Geography Temperate: from May to mid-October, the temperatures are particularly pleasant. Whereas May and June are the sunniest months, July and August are the hottest. In September and October, Luxembourg often experiences its own “Indian Summer”. By the end of the year the weather gets dry, cold and snowy.Luxembourg: Green heart of EuropeDespite a dense network of roads and railways, forests cover a third of the country!It is often called "the little Switzerland" because of its stunning nature and inspiring architecture.
History 35,000 years ago - evidence of primitive inhabitants963 - an ancient, supposedly Roman, fort named Lucilinburhuc1354 - the emperor Charles IV elevated it to the status of a duchyHabsburg (1477–1795) and French (1795-1815) ruled1815 - the Congress of Vienna gave formal autonomy to Luxembourg independence Beneath the fortress of Luxembourg, there are around 21 kilometers of hidden underground passages.
History 15% of the country’s population is immigrants, mostly of Portuguese and German origins. The Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839 reduced Luxembourg's territory by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. Luxembourg was invaded and occupied by Germany during the First World War, but was allowed to maintain its independence and political mechanisms. It was again invaded and subject to German occupation in the Second World War in 1940, and was formally annexed into the Third Reich in 1942.During World War II, Luxembourg abandoned its policy of neutrality, when it joined the Allies in fighting Germany. Its government, exiled to London, set up a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1946, and of NATO in 1949. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and, in 1999, it joined the euro currency area. In 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held in Luxembourg.
Motto: "Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn" (EN) "We want to remain what we are" Languages The mother tongue of the natives of Luxembourg is … .All the official proceedings and businesses in Luxembourg take place in … .In Luxembourg, the first language taught in schools as well as used by the media is … .The name of the country comes from the High German «lucilinburch» – «a small town».
Economy Luxembourg is on the 3rd place in the European Union on effectiveness of doing business. Only Finland and Denmark managed to get ahead of it, which take the 1 and 2 place respectively. Luxembourg's stable, high-income economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, which was dominated until the 1960s by steel, has diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking and other financial exports, account for the majority of economic output. Luxembourg is the world's second largest investment fund center (after the USA), the most important private banking centre in the Eurozone and Europe's leading centre for reinsurance companies.Agriculture is based on small, family-owned farms. Barley, potatoes, wheat, oats and other livestock produce are grown and reared in large numbers.Luxembourg possesses the highest GDP per capita in the and the fourth highest rated in the quality of life index.Luxembourg is the world's most-industrialized nation, having $53,290 in income per person.
Economy The country has the highest percentage of mobile phones per capita in Europe. This is 151.7 phones per 100 people.Just knowing that more than 250 banks are located on the little territory of Luxembourg, there is no need for further explanation why this is the second richest country in the world. (The first is Qatar) In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there is the highest minimum wage (salary) in the world. It amounts to 1,642 Euros and it is growing!
Economy It operates scheduled services to 50 destinations in Europe, North Africa, the Mediterranean and Middle East, plus charter and seasonal summer services. Its head office is located on the grounds of Luxembourg - Findel Airport in Sandweiler.Its main base is Luxembourg – Findel Airport The only fatal accident in Luxair's history was on 6 November 2002. The airplane was flying from Berlin, Germany, and crashed in a field near the village of Niederanven during its final approach to Luxembourg airport. 20 passengers and crew died.
Education and culture Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours, although, having been for much of its history a profoundly rural country, it retains a number of folk traditions. There are several notable museums, mostly located in the capital: the National Museum of History and Art (MNHA) the Luxembourg City History Museum the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam).The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.The country has produced some internationally known artists, including the painters Théo Kerg, Joseph Kutter and Michel Majerus, as well as the photographer Edward Steichen. On a pan-European scale Luxembourg’s biggest claim to fame is probably that of winning the Eurovision song contest five times between 1961 and 1983.
Education and culture The ethnic mix of the population is 63.1% Luxembourg13.3% Portuguese7.3% other European ethnicities5.2% other ethnicities4.5% French4.3% Italian and 2.3% German The literacy rate is 100%, and the quality of education is one of the highest in the world.The University of Luxembourg is the only university in the country.There are 7 mixed schools 10 classical schools 15 technical schools and 4 international schools in Luxembourg.