Автор проекта: Богачук А.А. учитель английского языка ГБОУ гимназия №159 Калининского района Санкт-Петербурга
Ancient Origins of Halloween Halloween's origins date back to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain.The Celts, who lived 2,000 years ago in the area that is now Ireland, the United Kingdom and northern France, celebrated their new year on November 1. This day marked the end of summer and the harvest and the beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that was often associated with human death. On the night of October 31 they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth. In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts thought that the presence of the otherworldly spirits made it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make predictions about the future.
Today's Halloween Traditions The American Halloween tradition of "trick-or-treating" probably dates back to the early All Souls' Day parades in England. During the festivities, poor citizens would beg for food and families would give them pastries called "soul cakes" in return for their promise to pray for the family's dead relatives. The tradition of dressing in costume for Halloween has both European and Celtic roots. Hundreds of years ago, winter was an uncertain and frightening time. To avoid being recognized by these ghosts, people would wear masks when they left their homes after dark so that the ghosts would mistake them for fellow spirits. On Halloween, to keep ghosts away from their houses, people would place bowls of food outside their homes.
Halloween Superstitions In Scotland, fortune-tellers recommended that an eligible young woman name a hazelnut for each of her suitors and then toss the nuts into the fireplace. The nut that burned to ashes rather than popping or exploding, the story went, represented the girl's future husband. Another tale had it that if a young woman ate a sugary concoction made out of walnuts, hazelnuts and nutmeg before bed on Halloween night she would dream about her future husband. Young women tossed apple-peels over their shoulders, hoping that the peels would fall on the floor in the shape of their future husbands' initials; and stood in front of mirrors in darkened rooms, holding candles and looking over their shoulders for their husbands' faces.
Jack-o-lantern People cut out eyes, a nose and a mouth on a pumpkin, put there a candle, turning a usual pumpkin into jack-o-lantern. It is very ancient Irish custom. The legend tells that there lived the person by name of Jack who was very avaricious. Therefore, when he died, it didn't get on heavens. As it didn't start up and to a devil. As a result, Jack has been compelled to go on the ground with the pumpkin till the Doomsday. Irish began to cut out terrible faces on turnip, a beet, a potato and a pumpkin, representing jack-o-lantern.
Food Because Halloween comes in the wake of the yearly apple harvest, candy apples , caramel or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup. At one time, candy apples were commonly given to children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States. One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking of a barmbrack which is a light fruitcake, into which a plain ring, a coin and other charms are placed before baking.