Contents Great Britain on the mapNatureLakesEnglish QueenLondon is the capital of Great BritainEconomyPolitical system of Great BritainSights
National Flag of UK
Great Britain on the mapCapital: LondonPopulation:59,5 mln. Square:244000 square km Cash: English poundLanguage: English
Population grew thanks to urbanization and Industrialization. During the first half of the 18th century, the population of Great Britain increased on about 15 percent. Between 1751 and 1801, the year of the first official census, the number rose from one-half to 16 million, and between 1801 and 1851, the population grew more than two-thirds to 27 million.
There are many rivers in Britain. They are not long but some of them are deep. The longest river is the Severn. There are many lakes in Scotland. The most beautiful is Loch Lomond. There are many mountains in the north of England and in Scotland but they are not very high. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis.
London is the capital of Great Britain London is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans in the 1st century AD. In the 11-th century it became the capital of England. In 1215 its citizens won the right to elect their Lord Major. The town experienced tremendous growth in trade and population during the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a state consisting of the nations of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Simply known as the United Kingdom (UK).
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It lives by manufacture and trade. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs, the other half of its food has to be imported. Britain is one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world: every person is employed in agriculture, eleven are employed in mining, manufacturing and building. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining, ship-building, motor vehicle manufacturing, textile, chemistry, electronics, fishing and food processing. The industrial centres of Great Britain are London, Manchester, Eirmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and others.
POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN As to its political system it is a constitutional monarchy. The power of the Queen (now Elizabeth II) is limited by Parliament which includes two Houses — the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The Prime Minister is usually the head of the party which is in power. There are the following parties there: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party.
About 4,600 years ago – or maybe more – the Stone Age inhabitants of Britain started building an enormous stone structure. This structure is now called Stonehenge, and it is near Salisbury, in the South of England. The largest of the Stonehenge stones weigh 50 tons, and the smallest weight 5 tons. The people who started Stonehenge were primitive. They used no metal and their tools were made only of stone, bone and wood. Those primitive people usually spent all day, from sunrise to sunset, hunting, fishing and growing crops. They started to build Stonehenge in about 1,000 B. C. and finished it 600 years later. Thousands of men and women took part in building it.
Picadilly Circus It is difficult to say what's the real centre of London, but many people choose Piccadilly circus.It is called a circus because it is round, not square like many others places. This is because it is not only central but also the heart of London's world. Within a few hundred yards of it we find most of London's best- knowtheatres and cinemas and most famous restaurants. Piccadilly Circus at night is a colorful sight.
The Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Parliament in London, known also as the Palace of Westminster, is the place where members of Parliament gather to make laws. The Palace of Westminster stands on the riverside near Westminster Abbey. Tourists always go to see them.
There are many public parks in London: Hyde Park, Regents Park, Kengsington Gardens. Hyde Park is Londoners’ favourite resting place, where crowds of people may be seen in the “Speaker’s Corner” listening to Hyde Park speakers.
Saint Paul's Cathedral Saint Paul's Cathedral was designed in a classical Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. It was constructed between 1675 and 1710. Many famous persons are buried in the Cathedral. Trafalgar Square was named for Lord Nelson's naval victory in the Battle of Trafalgar. In the centre of the square is Nelson's Column that includes his high statue. At the corners of the column are four sculptured lions. Trafalgar Square is the site of the National Gallery. Traditionally political meetings are held here. Each December a large Christmas tree sent from Norway is erected in Trafalgar Square.
Today the picture galleries of the National Gallery exhibits it works of all the European schools of painting which existed between the 13th and 19th centuries. The most famous works among them are "Venus and Cupid" by Diego Velazquez, "Adoration of the Shepherds" by Nicolas Poussin, "A Woman Bathing" by Harmensz van Rijn Rembrandt, "Lord Heathfield" by Joshua Reynolds and many others.
BIG BEN It was under construction within several centuries since 1042, - then the first palace for king Edward-confessor has been incorporated. The modern shape has got Parliament in 1840-1888, when the well-known building in new gothical style with a 97-meter Hour tower (Clock Tower) on which places a bell Big Ben, and a 102-meter powerful tower of Victoria has been erected
The British Museum The British Museum contains the most important collections in Britain. It is officially described as being the National Library and Museum of History, Art and Ethnography.
Trafalgar square.The column of Nelson. London. The column of Nelson on Trafalgar square was built in 1842 under the project of architect John Nash. Height most column - 50 meters. In 1867 the basis sculptures of four lions have been erected.
The tower of London. It has in the past been a fortress, a palace, a prison and a mint. William the Conqueror began building the Tower for the purpose of protecting the city. It is a museum now.
Westminster Abbey is noted for its architecture and historical associations. It is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. The Abbey was a monastery for a long time.