Ancient Greek philosophers Created by Elizabeth KoloevaInstructed by Maria Zatolokina
The Aims of the work To create a useful work for English lessonsTo enrich pupils’ minds with the facts about the lives of interesting peopleTo get acquainted with famous quotations and to use them in speech
Philosophy as we understand it is a Greek creation. Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. Many philosophers today concider that Greek philosophy has shaped the entire Western thought since its inception. As Alfred Whitehead once noted, with some exaggeration, "Western philosophy is just a series of footnotes to Plato.” Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers, to medieval Muslim philosophers, to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment
Socrates (469-399 B.C.) 15]Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus," which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The influence of this approach is most strongly felt today in the use of the scientific method, in which hypothesis is the first stage.To illustrate the use of the Socratic method; a series of questions are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those which lead to contradictions. It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. In fact, Socrates once said, "I know you won't believe me, but the highest form of Human Excellence is to question oneself and others.
Epikouros (341-270 B.C.) Full nameΈπίκουρος EpikourosEra Ancient philosophySchool EpicureanismMain interests Atomism, HedonismFor Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by peace and freedom from fear, and the absence of pain, and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are the measures of what is good and bad, that death is the end of the body and the soul and should therefore not be feared, that the gods do not reward or punish humans, that the universe is infinite and eternal, and that events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space.
Plato(427-347 B.C) Plato ( Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn)Era Ancient philosophySchool was Socrat’s pupilPlato was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Plato's sophistication as a writer is evident in his Socratic dialogues; thirty-five dialogues and thirteen letters have been ascribed to him. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts.Although there is little question that Plato lectured at the Academy that he founded, the pedagogical function of his dialogues, if any, is not known with certainty. The dialogues since Plato's time have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, and other subjects about which he wrote
Aristotle (324-322 B.C.) Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) Era Ancient philosophySchool Platon’s AcademyAristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'".]However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos, who was concerned by the correct use of words. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood the logical implications. Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of a deducting system, he could never actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic.] Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises, hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist, where he introduced his division method
Plato and Aristotle Aristotle, Aristoteles in Latin and many other languages (but Aristote in French and Aristotele in Italian), (384 BC - 322 BC) has, along with Plato, the reputation of one of the most influential philosophers in history. Their works, although connected in many fundamental ways, differ considerably in both style and substance. Plato wrote several dozen philosophical dialogues—arguments in the form of conversations, usually with Socrates as a participant—and a few letters. Though the early dialogues deal mainly with methods of acquiring knowledge, and most of the last ones with justice and practical ethics, his most famous works expressed a synoptic view of ethics, metaphysics, reason, knowledge, and human life. Predominant ideas include the notion that knowledge gained through the senses always remains confused and impure, and that the contemplative soul that turns away from the world can acquire "true" knowledge. The soul alone can have knowledge of the Forms, the real essences of things, of which the world we see is but an imperfect copy. Such knowledge has ethical as well as scientific import. One can view Plato, with qualification, as an idealist and a rationalist.
Famous quotations The same true arises in mankind not once, but infinite number of times. ©AristotleGood luck is the employee of happiness© AristotleIn each person there is the sun. Only allow to it to shine. © Socrat.Those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. (Plato, Republic)It is impossible to live better, than spending a life inspiration to become more perfect. © Socrat .Nobody the good person it becomes casual © Plato
Histocal value The Ancient Greek philosophy has made defining impact on all history western and partly even world philosophy up to today. "Philosophy" we are obliged by the term of antiquity. Blossoming of Ancient Greek philosophy is necessary on V—IV centuries BC, and its echoes faded within a millennium. In Byzantium and Islam countries dominating influence of the Greek philosophy remained within all next millennium; then, at the time of the Renaissance and humanism, and in Europe there was a revival of the Greek philosophy that has led to creative new growths, beginning from Plato and Aristotle epoch of the Renaissance and finishing influence of the Greek philosophy on all development of the European philosophical thought