James Cook (1728-1779) The English explorer, navigator, and cartographer James Cook is famous for his voyages in the Pacific Ocean and his accurate mapping of it, as well as for his application of scientific methods to exploration.
EARLY LIFE 1728 - 1755 James Cook was born in 1728 in Marton, England. His father was a farm worker who allowed James to apprentice on coal carrying boats at the age of eighteen. While working in the North Sea, Cook spent his free time learning math and navigation, all skills he would need one day to command his own ship. In 1755 he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, as Britain was re-arming for the Seven Years' War. Cook realized his career would advance more quickly in military service.
Cook sailed to Tahiti on the Endeavor in order to observe Venus as it passed between the Earth and the Sun. Cook sailed to Tahiti on the Endeavor in order to observe Venus as it passed between the Earth and the Sun. Precise measurements of this event were needed worldwide in order to calculate a distance between the Earth and the Sun. During this expedition, he sailed from Plymouth, England, to Brazil, around Cape Horn (the southern tip of South America), and to Tahiti, where he stayed for months in order to observe the transit of Venus . Then he mapped New Zealand and the east coast of Australia (known as New Holland at the time).
The First Voyage (1768–1771) Plymouth – Rio-de-Janeiro – Cape Horn – Tahiti – New Zealand - Batavia - Plymouth
HMS Endeavour replica
The Second Voyage (1772–1775) Cook's second expedition took him to Antarctica. He had a new mission to find the unknown southern land.
The 'Resolution' was fitted out with the most advanced navigational aids of the day, including a Gregory Azimuth Compass, ice anchors and the latest apparatus for distilling fresh water from sea water. The 'Resolution' was fitted out with the most advanced navigational aids of the day, including a Gregory Azimuth Compass, ice anchors and the latest apparatus for distilling fresh water from sea water. Cook took on fruit and meat at Cape Town, began to see icebergs in December and, on the 17th January, 1773 the 'Resolution' was the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle. They came near to discovering Antarctica but turned north-east then east to New Zealand.
Terra Australis Incognita The name "Australis“ means "Southern" or "from the South" in ancient Latin
The Third Voyage (1776–1779) Cook's last expedition was a search for a Northwest Passage between Alaska and Asia. He sailed from England on July 12, 1776, on the Resolution. On January 18, 1778 Captain Cook and his crew were surprised to find the Hawaiian islands. He named them the "Sandwich Islands“ (for the Earl of Sandwich, one of Cook's patrons, now called Hawaii). After a short time Cook's ships left, but were forced to return because the Resolution needed some repairs. At first Cook was treated as a god by the islanders but this time the mood had changed. Cook was stabbed on 14 February 1779 when he was trying to make the natives return a stolen sailboat. The ship returned to England without Cook on October 4, 1780.
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718 —1792) John Montagu played an important role in the history of the Royal Navy from 1744 to 1782, which included the American War of Independence and the discovery of Australia and islands of the Pacific Ocean. He supported Captain Cook's exploratory voyages and, in return, Cook named the Sandwich Islands for him (now Hawaii). The sandwich was named after him in 1762 when he spent 24 hours at a gaming table without other food.
The Death of Captain James Cook
Cook’s third and final voyage
Family life (1728-1779) Cook married Elizabeth Batts (1742–1835). The couple had six children: James (1763–1794), Nathaniel (1764–1781), Elizabeth (1767–1771), Joseph (1768–1768), George (1772–1772) and Hugh (1776–1793). When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London East End of London
The routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue. The route of Cook's crew following his death is shown as a dashed blue line.
Gordon Lightfoot - Ghosts of Cape Horn * All around old Cape Horn Ships of the line, ships of the morn Some who wish they'd never been born They are the ghosts of Cape Horn Fal deral da riddle de rum With a rim dim diddy And a rum dum dum Sailing away at the break of morn They are the ghosts of Cape Horn See them all in sad repair Demons dance everywhere Southern gales, tattered sails And none to tell the tales
Kiwi have long beaks with nostrils at the tip for sniffing out their favourite foods. Kiwi have long beaks with nostrils at the tip for sniffing out their favourite foods. Kiwi have wings but they are very small which means kiwi are flightless. Kiwi feathers are rough. Kiwi have a very distinctive smell - some say that they smell like a forest mushroom. Kiwi defend themselves using their powerful legs and sharp claws to kick and scratch at anything attacking them. They are also fast runners which can help them get away from predators. Female kiwis lay enormous eggs that can take up 20 percent of their body. Parents don’t feed the chicks after they hatch because they are already able to find their own food. During the day they sleep.
The giant moa was one of the biggest birds ever known. It was more than three meters tall and weighed about 250 kilograms. The giant moa was one of the biggest birds ever known. It was more than three meters tall and weighed about 250 kilograms. Because moa couldn’t fly they were easy to catch, especially the chicks which dogs would have eaten. Scientists think that moa were eaten to extinction by 1500.