The birth of cinematography Marina KononenkoBelgorod region Belovskaya secondary schoolForm 11
Contents: The first filmsHollywood became the film-making capital of the worldThe biggest film companiesBritish film industryMovie stars“ The seventh art”
The first films Imagine the surprise and the shock that people felt when they saw the first film in1895! There was no sound, no colour and the films were very short: they lasted from 60 to 90 seconds! Besides, they did not tell a story. They were glimpses of real life: a military parade, a running horse , a boxing match, the ocean… One of first film showed a train coming towards the camera. The audience panicked and run away! The frightened people were sure that the train was coming into the theatre. The early films were shown in music halls, theatres, cafes and even shops. Travelling projectionists brought the films to smaller cities and country towns.The cinema was the perfect popular entertainment. It was not expensive and, at first, the audience consisted mainly of workers. The rich and intellectual classes ignored it. They didn't think it was art. For example, the London Times wrote about one of the Lumiere brothers` first shows in 1896 and didn`t mention the cinema again until 1904!
Hollywood became the film-making capital of the world. In 1911, the first studio was opened in Hollywood, Los Angeles . Film – makers soon realized that Southern California's climate was perfect for shooting film all the year round. And the area had setting for nearly any film – it had mountains, desert and ocean. Soon nearly all important American studios were in Hollywood and it became the film – making capital of the world. The men who ran Hollywood studios were businessmen and their main aim was to make money. They soon realized that the best way to do this was to standardize their films. When the audience liked a certain kind of film, the studios made many more of exactly the same kind. By the 1920s, 80 percent of world films were produced in Hollywood.
HollywoodMaking films is expensive. On the average, it costs 36 million dollars to produce a film.
The biggest film companies: MGM (Metro – Goldwyn – Mayer) In 1930s-1950, it produced such prestige films as David Copperfield (1935) and The Wizard of Oz (1939).Paramount (1912) A major studio from the silent days of the cinema.20th Century Fox (1935) Recent successes include the Star Wars trilogy (1977-1983).Columbia Pictures (1924) became a major studio by the 1940s.Universal (1915) In the1970s-1980s it became one of the industry’s leaders with box-office hits from Steven Spielberg.Warner Bros (1923) It was founded by Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack Warner.
British film industry The British film industry does exist, but it is very small. In 1993, only 2.5 per cent of all the money taken at the cinema box offices was for British films.British films do not have big budget and cannot compete with American films. The few films that are made by British Film Companies usually receive some money from American companies. This means that British films often have to use American actors to appeal to the American cinema-going audience.British producers who want to make films often go to America. Hollywood is full of British actors, directors, writers and editors.
Movie stars:Charlie Chaplin Charles Spenser Chaplin was born on the 16 th of April,1889 in London, in a family of actors. And already at seven he sang and danced on a scene. His childhood was poor, hungry, severe and lonely, as at the majority of children of that time. Gone through these years subsequently has laid down in a basis of many remarkable comedies. Сharlie has left the house at sixteen and was arranged to work at theatre .
Mary Pickford Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was an Academy Award-winning Canadian motion picture star, as well as a co-founder of the film studio United Artists and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Known as "America's Sweetheart," "Little Mary" and “The Girl With the Curls," she was one of the first Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and one of film's greatest pioneers. Her influence in the development of film acting was enormous.
Clark Gable William Clark Gable (February 1, 1901 – November 16, 1960) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. He has been nicknamed "The King of Hollywood." His most famous role was in the 1939 epic film Gone with the Wind, in which he starred with Vivien Leigh. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Gable seventh among the Greatest Male Stars of All Time.
Vivien Leigh (1913-1967)The stage name of Vivien Mary Hartley. Indian-born English actress. She appeared on the stage in London and New York and won Academy Awards for her performances as Scarlett O’ Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939) and as Blanche du Bois in A Streetcar Named Desire ( 1951).
Marilyn Monroe Marilyn Monroe was a perfect example of a Hollywood studio star. Her great beauty made her a world-famous sex symbol. But in spite of her success in films, Monroe had a tragic life. She died at the age of 36 from an overdose of sleeping pills. Since her death she has become one of the most written-about film stars in history.
“THE SEVENTH ART” Today, no one disputes cinema’s place as the “ seventh art”. According to Derek Malcolm of The Guardian, ” Cinema has provided as many great artists over the last 100 years as literature, the theatre, and any of the other arts.”