Project Work “Everything has its beginning” Bazhenov Kostya
The aim of my project is to study the origin of the English Nation
The Britons In the early days of history (50-450) England was known as Britain and the people who lived there were the Britons. There were no big towns on the British Isles at that time. People lived in small villages along the rivers or near the sea. The Britons caught fish, grew wheat and had many pigs, cows and sheep. Later they learned to make things of wool and metal and sold them to the people who came across the sea.
The Britons could not keep their land free for a long time. The Germanic tribes from Western Europe-the Angles, Saxons and Jutes—attacked the coasts of Вritain and after long wars with the Britons settled on the British Isles. They took houses, fields and cattle from the Britons. The Britons went to the mountains in the west of the Isles and settled there. This part of Britain is called Wales now.
The Celts The Celts originally lived in Austria (700 BC). The first Celts occupied the western island (now Ireland) and the northern area of the main island (now Scotland) in about 500 BC. They were from Gaul which is now France. Another group of Celts invaded and settled on the main island. They were called the Bretons (or Brythons). Later, this group of islands was called the ‘British Isles.
The Celts were a group of peoples tied by similar language, religion, and culture. They were warriors, living for battles. They brought iron working to the British Isles.
The Angles The Angles came either from Angeln (now Schleswig-Holstein), or from Denmark. The Angles occupied the central part of southern Britain and the northern and eastern coasts. The Angles got most of the land and became the strongest tribe. They founded the kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria and East Anglia. These territories were called Engla land, or Angle land, from which the name England came.
The Saxons The Saxons participated in the Germanic settlement of Britain during and after the 5th century. The Saxons came from Germany. They settled along the south coast and on both banks on the Thames. They were warlike people. The word 'Saxon' derives from the word 'Sax', meaning a variety of one-edged sword.
The Anglo-Saxons As time went on the two peoples - the Angles and the Saxons - grew into one and were called Anglo-Saxons. They called their speech English, and their country England - that is, the Land of the English. The Anglo-Saxons formed many kingdoms-Kent, Essex, Wessex, which now are counties of Great Britain.
The Anglo-Saxons weapons These kingdoms were at war with one another. The stronger kings took the land from the smaller kingdoms .
The Jutes The Jutes were a Germanic tribe who originated from Denmark and South Jutland. The Jutes sailed across the North Sea and settled in the south of England in about 450. They also conquered the Isle of Wight and the opposite coast of Hampshire in the early 6th century. Large numbers of Jutes lived in the New Forest in Hampshire and until the 11th century it was known as Ytene (of the Jutes).
The Normans The Normans came to England from the area called Normandy in 1066. The Normans were by origin a Scandinavian tribe. A few centuries before the Norman Conquest of England, these people (as then Vikings) lived in the northern coast of Europe. They brought the French language and French culture to the British Isles.
In conclusion I can say the English Nation has its origin from the Celts, the Angles, the Britons, the Saxons, the Jutes and the Normans. Their settlement of Britain is the beginning of the history of the English Nation.