extreme sports 2008\2009 school year Aleksey AlnatanovZhenya GrafovaAnastasia Mikhaylovateacher: Elena MakhovikovaSchool #1694 , Moscow, Russia
CONTENT PARCOURB.A.S.E. JUMPINGSNOWBOARDINGCAVING STREET RACINGWHITE WATER RAFTINGSURFINGWINTER SWIMMINGBUNGEE JUMPINGABSEILINGZORBING
PARCOUR It is a mixture of acrobatic, running, fighting and a fantasy of the tracers. On the one hand it is a trick sport, because it is physical activity but on the other hand it is a style of life because it has no set of rules, team work or competitiveness. In parcour the whole control is important. It is a developing sport that has a lot of effective elements, somersaults and other dangerous tricks. Tracers haven’t got special equipment or clothes. They can use only resources of their own bodies. The main idea of parcour is getting over obstacles in your path.
B.A.S.E. JUMPING Base jumping is an acronym of the words Building (B), Antenna (A), Span (S) and Earth (E). It is a list of main objects that B.A.S.E. jumpers jump of. These sportsmen are called jumpers or basers. It is one of the most dangerous sports. Basers use only one parachute, because it takes them less than one minute for a jump. They use a smaller parachute then skydivers, special boots and a helmet. In the most number of countries BASE jumping is forbidden. In Russia it is allowed but you must have a permission to enter the object. Since 1981 one hundred twenty two deaths have been registered among basers.
SNOWBOARDING It is one of the most popular winter sports. Now it is included in the Olympic Games. Also it is a style of life, with its own equipment, music and clothes and even language. Snowboarding is different from skiing. “The only thing skiing has in common with snowboarding is the snow”, says one snowboarding fan. A snowboard looks like a big skateboard without wheels. The most difficult thing is to keep balance. It is a dangerous sport because snowboarders fly down hills at amazing speed. Snowboarding is especially popular with teenagers and students. They think that snowboarding is for teenagers and skiing is for old people.
CAVING Caving is an extreme kind of sport. People who like this kind of sport explore caves of natural origin. Cavers use special equipment: a rope, a helmet and a lantern on it. It is not just sport, it is also a research work. People must have not only a serious preparation and physical training, but also psychological availability. Caving is a very dangerous kind of sport because toppling can happen and there is not much oxygen in the caves. But some people get adrenalin from caving. It is popular in many countries all over the world. It is a fantastic kind of sport.
STREET RACING Street racing is a form of unsanctioned and illegal auto racing which takes place on public roads. At night racers meet on long avenues and streets and start racing. Only two cars take part in one racing. Excitement is very important for racers. It is a dangerous type of sport because racers can have an accident with cars on the road. They have very powerful cars and engine. Racers use such equipment as a helmet and GPS. They like to compete at night, it gives them more adrenalin. For most of them it is a style of life.
WHITE WATER RAFTING Rafting is an extreme sport. It has 3 categories of difficulty. The first level is not dangerous and can be a way of entertainment for tourists. The second level is for trained people who know a lot about the place of rafting. And the third one is the most dangerous category. The rivers suitable for rafting, are in rather remote places. Such rivers are usually situated in mountain areas or in very relief districts. So in a case of emergency people don’t have many chances because of absence of communication with saving services. Traumas and overcooling can happen too. There are different types of boats for rafting: an inflatable vessel without a skeleton, a floatable catamaran (an inflatable vessel with a skeleton) and a kayak (or canoe).
SURFING Surfing is a modern and fashionable sport but it is not so young as many people think. The first surfers were Hawaiians, and the first surfboards weighed about 70 kg. Perhaps, the first Europeans who knew about this activity were the sailors of Captain Cook in 1770s. Nowadays there are different styles of surfing and surfboards too. For example, a sportsman rides on a short flexible board lying on his or her stomach which is not very popular now. Board can be short (about 180 cm) or long (to 3 m). Surfers wear special equipment in cold water: wetsuits, boots, hoods, and gloves to protect them against lower water temperatures. Wetsuits are very important in hot weather too, because sportsmen spend a lot of time in the sun. Surfing can be also dangerous because of sea animals which are poisonous very often.
WINTER SWIMMING Winter swimming is a type of swimming for a short distance and time. On the one hand it is an extreme sport because it can be very dangerous for life and health but on the other hand it can train your body and rise immunity. You shouldn’t try winter swimming if you have problems with your heart or lungs and some other illnesses. It is very popular in Finland and some other countries such as Russia, China and USA etc.
BUNGEE JUMPING The word “bungee” first appeared in 1930s and was the name for a rubber. It was used as a slang word. The first modern bungee jumps were done in April 1979 from the 250-foot bridge in Bristol, by 5 men of the Oxford University Dangerous Sport Club. The jumpers were arrested shortly after, but continued with jumps in the USA from the Golden Gate and Royal Gorge bridges, (this last jump was sponsored by one of the American TV programs) spreading the concept worldwide. By 1982 they have jumped from mobile cranes and hot air balloons, often putting on commercial displays. Some people think it is not a very dangerous sport because such rubber rope can carry weight of a tank. On the other hand it can be dangerous if you have problems with heart and blood pressure. Special equipment is not necessary for it, only special rubber rope and fixators for legs.
ABSEILING Abseiling (rock climbing) is a dangerous sport and presents risks, especially to unsupervised or inexperienced climbers. It has been known since 1870s. It is more dangerous than climbing itself because the rope system takes the weight of the sportsman constantly rather than only in the event of a fall. Special equipment is absolutely necessary for abseiling. Helmets are worn to protect the head from bumps and falling rocks. Climbers wear boots or other strong footwear with good grips. Knee-pads (and sometimes elbow-pads) are popular in some applications for the protection of joints during crawls or hits.Nowadays a kind of abseiling is very popular in cities and needed in industry.
ZORBING Zorbing (sphereing or globe-riding) is a recreational activity when people travel in a sphere downhill or on water. Zorb (sphere) is generally made of transparent plastic, so you can see through it. It weighs about 80 kilos. The inside of a zorb contains several straps to keep the rider in place. Usually people do it for fun. Zorbing can be done on a flat surface or on water, as well, for inexperienced riders. Most spheres are constructed for a single rider, but some hold two or three. Globe-riding is very popular in New Zealand. A “zorbonaut” is a name of a person who practices zorbing. Everybody can try it. You don’t need any special equipment. A zorbonaut must be older than 6 years old.
MANY THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!! BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURSES1. Д.Фурни «Спорт. Большая иллюстрированная энциклопедия, АСТ, 20032.http://www.travelblog.org/Photos/18761.html3.http://www.bidia.net/category/adventures/4.http://www.daylife.com/photo/00wmdTY7cJ80O5. http://fspantalone.wordpress.com/6. http://shawnspb.narod.ru/snow.htm7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafting8.http://www.exstyle.ru/sport.php?page=index&cid=2&sid=27 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abseiling10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bungee_jumping11.http://www.zorb.ru/component/option,com_tovary/Itemid,27/lang,ru/#top12.http://www.gornoaltai.ru/malt/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104&Itemid=147&lang=en13.http://www.xrockclimbing.com/images/khanh6.jpg14. http://surfersparadise.ru/ Mikhaylova Anastasia Grafova Zhenya Alnatanov Aleksey