Economy of Sweden
Sweden is located on the Scandinavian Peninsula. The size of the area is 449964 square kilometers. The capital is Stockholm. It shares borders with Norway, Finland and Denmark. A peaks Scandinavian mountain in the west separates Sweden from Norway. It washed by the waters of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea. The lake occupied by about 10 % of land area. There are Vanern (5545 square kilometric) and Vattern (1898 square kilometric) the largest. Calix, Elva, Elva-Shellefte, Mind, Elva, and Torne is the main rivers. Sweden - a country of moderate climate, despite the location in the northern latitudes. Sub-arctic climate dominated by in the northern mountainous areas. Part of it lies above the Arctic Circle where the sun never sets during the night in the summer and winter polar night occurs.
Geographical feature of the country - this is a great elongation from north to south, which leads to separation of the economic zone and the non-uniform population density. The population of Sweden at the end of 2011 was approximately 9,481,000 people. It is concentrated mostly in the southern half of the country and in coastal areas with more temperate climates. Swedish Krona (SEK) the national currency of Sweden. In circulation are banknotes in denominations of 1,000, 500, 100, 50, 20 and 10 crowns. Swedish Krona was introduced as a currency instead of riksdaler in 1873.
In the early twentieth century from a backward country, Sweden has become one of the most economically developed states. In the 1970s, at a cost of industrial production per capita in Sweden was in first place in Europe. The transformation from a backward agrarian economy into an advanced industrial facilitated by the existence of large reserves of important natural resources: iron ore, timber, and hydropower. The expansion of Swedish exports contributed to the country's industrialization and growth of urban population. This led to the development of the railway network and construction. On the basis of Swedish inventions created and rapidly growing new companies in the metallurgy and mechanical engineering.
Numbers of serious problems have arisen in the country's industry in 1973. This was the result of a very deep and prolonged global crisis of the mid 70s. International competition increased. On the world market come from the country's low labor costs. To avoid too rapid structural changes in the industry and the rapid growth of unemployment, the government since the mid 70s to early 80s has provided significant amounts of assistance to affected industries. In order to restore the competitiveness of the government implemented a series of devaluations since August 1977. The favorable global market conditions had a positive impact on the Swedish industry.
The leading trend in the economic development of Sweden in the 1980s was the shift from the traditional dependence on iron ore and steel industry to the advanced technology in the manufacture of transport, electrical, communications, chemical and pharmaceutical products. Sweden followed a policy of non-participation in war and neutrality throughout the XX century. Thanks to Sweden has a high standard of living in a capitalist economic system. This system is based on the use of high technology and a comprehensive social security system. The country has a modern infrastructure, excellent internal and external communications, and skilled labor force. The main economic resources are timber, hydropower, and iron ore. The economy is focused primarily on foreign trade. Sweden is a highly developed industrial country with a developed internal and external transport infrastructure and substantial resources of highly qualified personnel. Rich deposits of iron ore, timber and hydropower, skilled labor allowed the accelerated industrialization, based on the production of high-tech goods and services. The Swedish economy is oriented to the external market.
Sweden has developed such trends in the industry: 1. Private services sector. 2. The sector of public services. 3. Forestry and forest industry.4. Mining and Metallurgical industries.5. Iron and steel industry.6. Machinery.7. Construction.8. Communications and information technology.9. Chemical industry.10. Agriculture.11. Food industry.
1. Private services sector. In Sweden, a fully liberalized postal services, telecommunications, domestic air freight, rail transport and electricity market. The reduction of state intervention in the credit market has led to the rapid development of financial services in the late '80s. In connection with the crisis of the real estate market began 90 lending institutions have suffered significant losses. This has caused far-reaching reforms of credit and financial system.
2. The sector of public services. Much of the public services provided by municipalities and local councils in Sweden. Municipalities are responsible for organizing the work of schools, childcare facilities and facilities for senior citizens. Local councils are responsible for organizing the health system and local public transport. The crisis of the early 90s and the subsequent ordering of the public finances have narrowed the scope of public services of local authorities.
3. Forestry and forest industry. Forestry is important for the Swedish economy since the mid-XIX century. Over the years, the industry gained primarily export-oriented. The share of Sweden accounted for 10% of global exports of wood. Swedish forestry is considered one of the most modern and environmentally oriented. In Sweden, only 3% of productive forests owned by the state. The most important group of forest owners are private individuals. In southern areas they own 80% of the forests. Forest enterprises are concentrated in central and parts of northern Sweden.
4. Mining and Metallurgical industries. For centuries, Sweden remained the largest earner and exporter of iron ore and sulfur. Currently, Swedish steel company specializes in producing high-quality steel - stainless, bearing, tool and others. But there is a traditional production and strip, plate and sheet steel. Sweden's leading steelmakers in the introduction of new technologies.
5. Iron and steel industry. By the mid-18th century, Sweden has become a leading steel producer in the world before the industrial breakthrough mid-19th century. Most of the smelters are concentrated in central Sweden, which are privately owned. More than half of steel output up special steel - alloyed and high-carbon. The largest producers of special steels are such companies AvestaPolarit, Sandvik Steel, Ovako Steel and Uddeholm Tooling.
6. Machinery. In recent years this industry has developed more intensively than any other. Very important are the automotive and aerospace industry. Volvo's and SAAB produce both vehicles and aerospace products. SAAB produces, in particular, civil and military aircraft.
7. Construction. It is the industry most severely affected crisis of the early 90s. The consequences of the situation late 80s - early 90s are still being felt. Then constructed real estate remains unclaimed. The most intensive recovery occurs in three major cities - Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo, and in several other cities. But the volume of housing construction continues to remain at an unprecedentedly low level.
8. Communications and information technology. These two industries have become the engine of economic growth in Sweden in the late 90s, when Sweden has set the tone for the practical use of new technologies. In 2000 and 2001, Sweden was awarded the title of the world's leading powers in the field of information technology. It is widely known Swedish company Ericsson, which supplies system for mobile telephony and digital exchange of information on all markets around the world. The company ranks second in the world in the field of telecommunications.
9. Chemical industry. Initially, the industry produced mainly, matches and explosives. After the Second World War, a large share of production accounted for paints and plastics. Over the past 20 years very intensive development of the pharmaceutical industry. More than 90 percent in Sweden produced drugs are exported. Currently, the largest are Astra Zeneca, and Pharmacia & Upjohn.
10. Agriculture. Most of Sweden's surface is covered with forests, mountains, lakes and swamps. Processed less than 10 per cent of the country. Most of all, agriculture is well developed in southern and central parts of the country. The food industry is concentrated in areas with developed agriculture and towns. With the accession to the EU Sweden has become a member of the European Common Agricultural Policy. This policy provides for a single European market for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Through participation in the Pan-European agricultural policy, the EU, Sweden receives a number of subsidies for agriculture: subsidies for arable land and livestock premiums, subsidies for environmental protection, support for regions. The EU provides subsidies for the expansion of agriculture in climatically unfavorable regions of the country - in Northern Sweden, the forest areas of southern Sweden and the islands of Gotland and Oland.
11. Food industry. She is represented by small regional companies, large companies, cooperatives, farmers and transnational mega-industrial groups. The industry uses mostly agricultural products produced in Sweden. In the food industry in Sweden is dominated by meat-packing, dairy and bakery industries. The share of enterprises owned by foreign capital, accounting for 30% of the production industry. Foreign investments in the food industry in Sweden has increased considerably during the 90s through the acquisition of Swedish companies and the concentration-based production in Scandinavia, Sweden.
Large companies in Sweden are Volvo, Ericsson, Vattenfall, Skanska, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, Electrolux, Volvo Personvagnar, TeliaSonera, Sandvik, Scania, ICA, Hennes & Mauritz, Nordea, Preem, Atlas Copco, Securitas, Nordstjernan and SKF. Swedish industry is entirely in private hands.
Economy of Sweden