Along the banks of the Okkervil river (Back to the History of our District)
Aims and Purposes of the Work To find out the Origin of the name of the Okkervil River. To get in touch with the History of our district. To get to know the facts about the famous people who lived on the territory of our district. To analyze the changes happened to the nature and ecological situation in our district.
General Characteristics of the Okkervil River The Okkervil River rises from the swampy lands to the east of our city and flows into the Okhta River. Its length is about 18 km. The width changes from 1,5 up to 18 m. The depth is up to 0,8 m.
The river had several names: 1699-the Okkervil River The 18-19 century –the Black River ,the Malaya Okhta, the Porkhovka River , the Yablonovka River 1940-1941 the Okkervil River
The Versions of the origin of the name Okkervil: After the name of the Swedish colonel Okkervil who had an estate on the bank of the river in the 17-th century. After the name of the village «Karvila» situated in the Riverhead. From the Karelo Finnish word «Kare»-Bend,Curve.
The Bridges Over the Okkervil River There are 16 bridges over the Okkervil River in St. Petersburg. Dybenko Bridge Kollontay Bridge Yablonovsky Bridge Utkin Bridge ( the first bridge over the Okkervil) Zanevsky Bridge The Bridge with Griffins etc.
One of the latest and most interesting bridges over the Okkervil is The Bridge with Griffins. It was opened near the Ice Palace in 2000 and devoted to the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg.
The most interesting historical monument on the banks of the Okkervil River is Utkina Dacha. It is a big architectural complex situated at the place of the confluence of the Okhta and Okkervil. Before the foundation of St. Petersburg this territory was owned by the Swedish Colonel Okkervil and was known as Okkervil Manor.
In 1730-s the owner of the estate became the Chief of the Secret Office, Count Andrey Ushakov (1670—1747)
Mark Poltoratsky (17 (28).04.1729 — 24.04.1795) Agafoclea Alexandrovna (1737—1822) In 1750-s the estate was presented to the Headmaster of the Singing Chapel Mark Poltoratsky, the first Russian singer who performed in the Italian Opera. So the new owners of the manor became the couple: Mark Theodorovich Poltoratsky and his wife Agafoclea Alexandrovna.
But in fact they lived in Tver Region and the estate was run by their daughter Agafoclea Suhareva. During that time in 1790-s the Manor -House and the wing-formed greenhouse were built by the architect Nikolay Lvov. Nikolay Lvov (4 (15).05.1753 - 22 .12.1803 3 января 1804)
Another daughter of the Poltoratskys Elizaveta married the first Director of the State Public Library, the President of the Academy of Arts A. Olenin. The estate of the Olenins “ Priyutino” is situated not far from our district on the road to Vsevolozhsk and is rather well remained. Their daughter Anna Olenina, the granddaughter of the Poltoratskys was loved by Pushkin. He even asked for her hand but was refused in the summer of 1828. Anna Olenina (11.08.1808 — 18.12.1888) Olenin (28.11.1763-17.04.1843 )
P. Kern (22.2.1800 — 8.6.1879) One more famous granddaughter of the Poltoratskys A. P. Kern in her youth often visited the manor. The estate was also visited by Krilov, Delvig and some other famous people of that time.
Estate Kosaya Gora The daughter of the Poltoratskys Agafoclea Suhareva owned one more estate Myza Kosaya Gora which was situated on the bank of the Okkervil River upstream. It included the House of the manager, a Stone Wing, a Mill, and some other constructions.
In December 1828 both estates were bought by the wife of Prince Shakhovsky-Zinoviya Shakhovskaya. After the death of her husband Shakhovskaya married Vasiliy Ivanovich Utkin, the Vice president of the Free Economic Society, later the World Judge. After the name of the last owners, the Utkins, the estate has been known up to the present days. Shakhovsky-Zinoviya Shakhovskaya ( 1811 – 1869 )
1872: the estate was handed over to the State Sanitary Comission. 1873: at the presence of Alexander II in the building of Utkina dacha the Ohtinsky Mariinsky Almshouse was opened. 1920-s: the complex belonged to the Commissariat of Health. 1936: The biggest part of the estate was rebuilt for flats and turned into a hostel.
During the following decades the buildings of the famous Utkin Estate were being ruined. In 2010 the inhabitants of the hostel were removed from the place. The architectural complex was left without any care. In November of 2010 in the main building there were three arsons. Today the famous architectural monument which was connected with the names of many outstanding people is in a disastrous condition. Our generation must do the best to preserve this wonderful monument of the Russian architecture, history and culture.
Estate Zhernovka In the second part of the 18-th century the eastern part of St. Petersburg was developed as a garden area. Many rich citizens of St. Petersburg built their summer estates in this district. One of them was Estate Zhernovka named after the tributary of the Okhta river –Zhernovka.
The Owners of Estate Zhernovka
F. I. Soimonov, Procurator of the Senate, the famous Russian navigator, explorer, hedrograph. F. I. Soimonov (1682— 22 июля 1780) A.B. Buturlin (1694—1767) A.B. Buturlin , the Russian Commander, Count, Field Marshal, started as a steward of Peter I.
In 1780-1790s the estate was owned by the Court Counselor M.I.Donaurov. Giacomo Quarenghi (1744 – 1817) At that time on the project of Giacomo Quarenghi the Manor-House, the main gates and the pavilion-pier were erected. The vast landscape park was laid out.
The last owners of the estate from 1835 up to 1917 were Nikolas and Anna Bezobrazovs. After their name the estate is often called. After the Revolution the estate was used as a Veterinary Hospital. The wonderful park was cut down, the wharf was ruined, all sculptures, modeling, paintings, interiors were destroyed. Now the building is in a very bad condition, too.
Today the Okkervil river is one of the most polluted rivers in St. Petersburg. It is regularly dumped by the industrial and biological waste. 20 ton of paint was dumped into the river only In the autumn of 2002. The acceptable level of aluminum exceeded 700 times. The water produces pungent odor of petroleum products. The banks of the river are extremely polluted, too. Today the river is practically dead.
One of the new ecollogically-social projects in our district is Park Okkervil in Kudrovo opened in October of 2010. It is going to be one of the most favourite places of the citizens of our district.
Survey among the pupils of the 5 B and 5V classes of our school. 1. The origin of the name Okkervil 2. Utkina Dacha 3.Other historical places in our district
There is a Native American saying: "We don`t inherit our land from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children". The Earth doesn`t belong to man, man belongs to the Earth.
What kind of environment will we leave for the future generations?